source links     atl2     bk     frH     rcM     rcT     wikCrc     wikOs

Mesopotamia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Persia Go to Arabia Go to Levant
c.200 Nearly all Seleucid possessions east of Zagros Mts. lost. by 200 RAI3 414
c.189 GORDYENE region between Armenia and Persia, under Seleucids from 312, independent until 90. 189 rcT, wikGrd
under Seleucids 312-141 rcM
  187 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, visits Babylon. 187 lvA3
  187 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 223, plunders temple of Bel in Susa to pay Roman indemnity.  Killed by the locals.  Son SELEUCUS-IV Philopator succeeds without opposition until 175.  Sis/wife Laodice-IV is queen. 187 B76 1-825, 8-380, 383, CAH 8-241, 495, CDCC 53, 803, CHJ 2-77, DGRBM 1-197, 3-775, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-149, 4-267, ISBE 4-386, Jud 3-73, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-292, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.175 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 187, poisoned by treasurer Heliodoros.  This leaves 3 possible claimants to throne:
1st son Demetrius, now a hostage in Rome
bro Antiochus, now living in Athens
infant son Antiochus, now in Syria
HELIODOROS usurps throne as regent for infant son Antiochus.
175 B76 8-383, CAH 8-332, 341, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-279, DGRBM 1-198, 3-775, Dur 2-573, GHH, IDB 4-267, ISBE 4-386, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, Sdl 5-292, atl2, bk, frH, rcM     174 RAI2
c.175 Bro of Seleucus-IV, ANTIOCHUS-IV, aided by Eumenes-II of Pergamum grabs throne of Syria/Babylonia from usurper Heliodoros until 164, but only as regent for Antiochus, infant son of Seleucus-IV. 1 Mac. 1:10       175 B76 1-994, CAH 8-496-7, CDCC 803, DGRBM 1-198, 2-373, Dur 2-573, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MRDK 353, OCD 72, RAI3, atl2, bk, rcM
c.172 Greeks settled in Babylon by Antiochus-IV. 172 atl2
c.172 Citizens of Babylon celebrate news of Antiochus-IV's victory in Egypt. 172 atl2
c.166 CHARAX PASINU, town at the head of the Persian Gulf, restored by Antiochus, who appoints Hyspaosines as satrap to oversee the work. 166 wikCS 166/5 irno 161 atl2
c.166/5 RESEN (called Larissa by Xenophon) disputed location on southeast Tigris, under Seleucids 312-141, is placed by Antiochus-IV under Persian HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine), who rules as Seleucid satrap until 141. 166/5 irnc
125 rcM
c.165 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 departs for eastern provinces to subdue Parthians and collect money. 1Mac 3:31-7
166 DGRBM 2-864, IDB 3-193     166/5 Sdl 5-307     165 CAH 8, CHJ 2-287, CAH 8-513, Jud 11-627, atl2
c.165 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 hears of a city called Elymais in Persia famous for wealth and the gold armor of Alex-III, heads for Persia. 1Mac 6:1
165 CAH 8-350
c.165 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 retreats from Persia to Babylon, then to Syria. 1Mac 6:1, Ant 12:9:1
165 CAH 8-514     164 atl2
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, learns of defeat of Lysias by Judas MaccabeeHe gets a sickness which affects his mind, turns over his kingdom to friend PHILIP, gives him a crown, ring, and robe, tells him to guide his son Antiochus-V. 1Mac 6:5, Ant 12:9:1
164 CAH 8-514
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 175, dies of consumption at Gabae Media.  Only son age 9, ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator succeeds until 162. 164 B76 1-995, 17-947, CAH 8-350, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, GHH, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-74, OHG, RAI3, Sdl 5-241, atl2, frH, rcM     164/3 B76 11-225 163 B76 8-383, CAH 8-514, Dur 2-556, E2LM 122, LEWH 94-5, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-314, TTPC, bk
c.164 LYSIAS, Seleucid viceroy of Syria, learns of death of Antiochus-IV.  Though A-IV had appointed Philip guardian of his 9 year old son Antiochus, Lysias usurps guardianship and sets up ANTIOCHUS-V, as king of Syria/Babylonia until 162, with title Eupator. 1Mac 6:17     164 B76 17-947, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-198, 2-864, IDB 1-151, Jud 3-74, RAI3, rcM
163 B76 8-383, CAH 8-514, Dur 2-556, LEWH 94-5, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-314
164 Nov HALLEY'S COMET recorded by Babylonians, but not Chinese. 164 irdpt, spac, wikHC
c.162 ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 164, along with governor Lysias, executed by his troops.  Cousin, and son of Seleucus-IV, DEMETRIUS-I succeeds until 150. 162 B76 III-456, 8-383, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, 2-879, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-151, 815, 3-193, Jud 3-73, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, SORH, TTPC, frH, rcM
162/1 Sdl 5-317     161 atl2
c.162 TIMARCHOS of Miletus, Seleucid satrap of Media/Babylonia from ?, rebels, proclaims himself king and invades Babylonia. 162 HCIP 2-108, lvD1rcM
c.161 TIMARCHOS, usurper of Media/Babylonia 161-0, allies with ARTAVIAS, governor of Armenia, marches toward Syria. 161 CAH 8-520
c.161/0 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, in Syria from ?, marches east to deal with Timarchos.  Greek cities of Mesopotamia support him. winter 161/0 CAH 8-520
c.160 TIMARCHOS, usurper of Media/Babylonia from 161, defeated and captured by Demetrius-I, executed.  Demetrius-I is named Soter by grateful Babylonians. 161/0 CAH 8-358 160 CAH 8-520, atl2, lvD1
c.150 DEMETRIUS-I Soter dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 162, defeated and killed by usurper ALEXANDER BALAS, who succeeds until 145, as a vassal of Ptolemy-VI, and puppet of Rome. 1Mac 10:48       151 IDB 1-815, Jud 2-577 150 B76 I-224, III-456, 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-253, 362, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-314, DGRBM 1-114, 967, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-78, Jud 2-576, 5-1489, 10-189, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI3, TTPC, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.150  Epistle of Jeremy  written by a Babylonian Jew.  Original language is disputed. 200-100 ODCC 731
c.147 MEDIA, under Seleucids from 311 partly conquered and occupied by MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38. 148/7 CAH 8-363 147 atl2
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS dies.  Usurper of Syria/Babylonia from 150, in Arabia, beheaded by Zabdiel.  DEMETRIUS-II Nicator is king of Syria/Babylonia until 140. 1Mac 11:16, Ant 13-4-8     147 frH
146 DGRBM 1-114, 198, 3-1178, GHH, IDB 1-816, Jud 2-576, wikD2     146/5 Sdl 5-329 145 B76 I-224, III-457, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-78, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, atl2, bk, rcM     141 Jud 5-1489
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, defeats Demetrius-II, proclaims Antiochus-VI king of Syria/Babylonia. 1Mac 11:54
145 CAH 8, CHJ 2, Jud 6-60, frH, rcM
c.142 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria/Babylonia for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, deposes A-VI, and claims throne for himself.  Fights Demetrius-II for it until 138. 1Mac 13:31
142 CAH 8, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-318, DGRBM 1-198, 3-1178, IDB 1-151, 4-717, Jud 6-61, OCD 72, rcM
c.142/1 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, invades Babylonia. 142/1 B76 VI-945
c.141 SELEUCIA on the Tigris, under Seleucids from 274, taken by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until ?. 141 B76 9-842, CAH 8-528, 9-579, Jud 4-37, LEWH 95, lvA, wikSl
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 SELEUCIAs:  Trachea in Cilicia, Pieria on the Orontes, and on the Tigris.
c.141 MEDIA taken by Mithridates-I of Parthia. 141 frH, hifiE
c.141 MARI, under Seleucids from 301, comes under local Bedouin Arab tribes until 115CE. 141 rcS
c.141 BABYLON, under Seleucids from 245 taken by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until ?.  A Parthian garrison is installed to watch Seleucia on Tigris. 141 CDCC 245, OHG, atl2
c.141 BABYLONIA, under Seleucids from 245, taken by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until 132. 144 wikM1Pr     141 B76 9-842, 11-990, CAH 8-528, 9-579, CDCC 647, Jud 4-37, LEWH 95, lvA
Oct 141 Mithridates-I reaches Uruk. Oct 141 icsPE, irnch
c.141 Seleucids expelled from Persia and Mesopotamia by Parthian king Mithridates-I. 141 lvA
c.141 HIRAH in south-central Mesopotamia, under Seleucids from 312, comes under Parthia until 115CE. 141 rcAr
c.141 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Seleucids from 312, comes under Parthia until 15CE. 141 rcM
Independent 189-90. rcT
c.141 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, is recognized as far southeast as Uruk. 141 eiArs
c.141 RESEN (called Larissa by Xenophon) on the southeast Tigris, under Seleucids from 312, goes independent, renamed CHARACENE (Mesene, Meshan).  HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine), satrap from 166/5, rules until 124, but not as king until 127. 141 CAH 8-371, wikHs
comes under Parthia until 125 141 rcM
c.141 COINS minted in Seleucia by MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38. 141 wikM1Pr
c.141 SELEUCID PERIOD of Syria / Babylonia from 312, ends in Babylonia, except for a brief recovery 130-29, Seleucids continue in Syria until 63. 141 mtms
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, leaves wife CLEO THEA to hold Antioch against Trypho, marches east to deal with Babylonia until 132.  Persis, Elymais, and Bactria give him substantial support. 1Mac 14:1
141 OCD 326
141/0 CAH 9-580 140 CAH 8-371, atl2, wikM1Pr, wikPE
c.140 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, returns from Hyrcania to Babylonia. 140 CAH 8-580 139 CAH 8-528
c.140 DURA EUROPOS on Euphrates comes under Parthian control. 140 ISBE 1-996
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, defeated and captured in Media or Babylonia by a general of Mithradates-I taken to Hyrcania until 129. 1Mac 14:??     142/1 CHJ 2-319     141 Jud 5-1489     140 CDCC 647, 803     140/39 B76 8-385, CAH 8-368, 9-580, Sdl 5-332
139 B76 III-457, 9-842, CAH 8-528, IDB 1-816, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, atl2, wikD2 139/8 CHJ 2     138 DGRBM 1-354, GHH, lvA
c.139 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, calls himself 'King of Kings'. 139 CAH 8-371
c.138 Antiochus, son of Demetrius-I, bro of D-II becomes 3rd husband of CLEOPATRA THEA and becomes ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria /Babylonia until 129. Ant 13:7:1     140 GHH     139 rcM 139/8 B76 I-423, CAH 8-368
138 CAH 8-529, IDB 1-152, 4-265, Jud 3-74, atl2, lvA     137 MCAW
c.138 HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine) ruler of Characene 141-24, attacks Elamites. 138 atl2
c.132 OSROES, Seleucid satrap of Babylonia from ?, confined to northwest Mesopotamia from 140, declares independence, rules as king until 127, forms state of OSROENE until 163CE.  Capital EDESSA. 136 B76 VII-611
132 CAH 9-586, MRDK 354, ODCC 444, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.132 BABYLONIA, under Parthians from 141, out of control until 130. 132 guess
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 invades Parthia, proceeds down east side of Tigris. 131 CAH 8-370     130 B76 VII-971, CAH 9-581, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490, wikPE     129 GHH, Sdl 5-340
c.130 BABYLONIA, out of control from 132, recovered by Antiochus-VII Sidetes until 129.  He now calls himself Antiochus the Great. 131 CHJ 2-324
130 B76 VII-971, CAH 9-581
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 pushes farther east, into Parthian heartland. 130 CHJ 2-324
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 defeats Parthian generals 3 times. 130 B76 VII-971, CAH 8-371, 9-581
c.130 Parthians expelled from Media and Babylonia by Antiochus-VII Sidetes. 130 lvA7S
c.130 When winter comes, the large Seleucid army and camp-followers must be distributed in groups thruout the country.  The native population, who suffers from the presence of so many foreigners, turns hostile towards the army they had welcomed a few months before. 130 CAH 8-372
c.129 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 demands full restoration of all Seleucid territories in Persia. 129 lvA7S
c.129 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, prisoner of Parthians from 140, released by Phraates-II king of Parthia to stir up civil war in Syria. 1Mac 14:??
130 CAH 8-372
129 B76 III-457, LEWH 95, OCD 326, atl2
129 Many of the native population, obeying Phraates' orders, attack all Seleucid camps on a given day. 129 CAH 8-372
c.129 2nd son of Demetrius-I, and 3rd husband of Cleo Thea, ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes dies.  , King of Syria/Babylonia from 138 killed at Ecbatana, in a native uprising.  His 2nd son Seleucus is taken prisoner by Phraates-II king of Parthia, and never regains freedom.  Phraates sends A-VII's body home in a silver coffin.  Syrian army is captured.  This leaves DEMETRIUS-II Nicator unchallenged king of Syria/Babylonia until 126/5 130 CAH 9, OHG
129 B76 I-423, VII-971, 9-843, CAH 8-352, 530, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-322, IDB 1-50, 152, Jud 3-75, 5-1490, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-333, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, lvA7S, rcM     129/8 CHJ 2
128 DGRBM 1-199, 967, 3-770, MCAW     127 LEWH 95
c.129 BABYLONIA, under Antiochus-VII from 130, taken by Artabanus-II.  Many Babylonians enslaved, their families sent to Media.  Babylonia comes under Arsacids until 90, under Parthia until 226CE. 127 DGRG 1-358 126 RAI2 340, 346, frH
c.129 Seleucia on Tigris punished by Phraates-II king of Parthia. 129 atl2
c.128 HIMERUS appointed viceroy of Babylon by Phraates-II of Parthia. 128 atl2
c.128 HIMERUS Parthian viceroy of Babylon becomes notorious for greed and cruelty. 128 atl2
c.128 HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine) ruler of Characene 141-24, invades Babylonia, seizes power in Babylon and Seleucia until 127. 128 CAH 8-372     127 wikPE
c.127 HIMERUS Parthian viceroy of Babylon rebels, mints coins calling self king of Babylon. 127 ISBE 1-390
c.127 OSROES, 1st king of Osroene at Edessa from 132, succeeded or ousted by Arab ABDU bar MAZUR, who rules until 120, independently until 122. 127 CAH 9-586, MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.127 CHARACENE (Mesene, Meshan), independent from 141, founded as a kingdom in east Mesopotamia and adjacent Persia by Seleucid satrap from 141, HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine) who rules until 124.  Capital is Charax.  Characene independent until 122, and lasts until 222CE. 127 CAH 8-372, wikCrc, wikCrc, wikPsk 125 rcM
c.126 ARTABANUS-II, Arsacid king of Parthia 128-24, asserts authority in Media and Babylonia.  Mesopotamia under Parthians until Trajan. 126
RAI2 351
c.126 Parthian control, over Babylon and Seleucia is re-established . 126/5 CAH 8-372
c.125 Timotheus, son of Hyspaosines, goes to Seleucia on Tigris. 125 atl2
c.124 CHARAX, city at the head of the Persian Gulf, restored and strengthened by Hyspaosines (Aspasine), king of Characene.  Remains capital. 124 atl2
c.124 ARTABANUS-II dies.  7th Arsacid king of Parthia from 128, killed fighting Sakas.  Son MITHRIDATES-II succeeds until 88.  Other son HIMERUS governs Mesopotamia. 126 GHH, wikP     125 GHH     124 B76 VII-774, CAH 9-584, CHEIA 158, LEWH 96, RAI3, hifiP   124/3 B76 VI-945, 9-843, OCD 123     123 HCIP 2-121, MRDK 381, RAI2, atl2, bk, wikGB     121 wikM2P
c.124 HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine), ruler of CHARACENE 141-24, occupying part of Babylonia from 128, forced out by Mithridates-II. 122 wikPE
c.124 HYSPAOSINES dies.  Ruler of CHARACENE from 141, king from 127, age 85, dies of illness.  Widow Thalassia tries to install their son APODAKOS as king, but he does not rule until 110/9. 125 rcM
124 CAH 8-371, ansr, atl2, wikCrc, wikHs     122/1 wikPsk     110 rcM
c.124/3 HIMERUS Parthian rebel of Babylon, mints coins calling self king of Babylon. 124/3 ISBE 1-390
c.122 BABYLONIA, under Arsacids 129-90, under Parthia 129-226CE, in disorder from 124, recovered by Mithridates-II. 123/2 ISBE 1-390 by 122 CAH 9-584
c.122 CHARACENE, independent from 127, becomes vassal state to Parthia. by 122
CAH 9-584
c.120 Arab ABDU bar Mazur, king of Osroene at Edessa from 127, ends.  FRADHASHT bar Gebaru succeeds until 115. 120 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.115 FRADHASHT bar Gebaru, king of Osroene at Edessa from 120, ends.  Son BAKRU-I succeeds until 112. 120 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.113 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88 takes all of Mesopotamia including Dura Europos on Euphrates, but no farther. 113 eiArs, gtbM2P, wikM2P, wikPE
c.113 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88 invades Armenia, takes hostage the Armenian king's son, the future Tigranes the Great. 113 wikM2P, wikPE
c.112 BAKRU-I bar Fradhasht, king of Osroene at Edessa from 115, ends.  Son BAKRU-II succeeds until 94. 120 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.110/9 APODAKOS, son of Hyspaosines former king of Characene 127-24, becomes king of Characene under Parthia until 104/3. 110 rcM
110/9 ansr, wikCrc, wikPsk
c.109/8 MITHRIDATES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia, calls himself 'King of Kings'. 109/8 eiArs
c.104/3 APODAKOS ends.  King of Characene under Parthia from 110/9.  TIRAIOS-I does not succeed until 95/4. 104/3 ansr, wikCrc, wikPsk 90 rcM

Mesopotamia 100-0
V