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Mesopotamia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Persia Go to Arabia Go to Levant
c.95/4 TIRAIOS-I becomes king of Characene under Parthia until 90/89. 95/4 wikCrc, wikPsk 90 rcM
c.94 BAKRU-II bar Bakru ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 112.  MANU-I succeeds and ends.  ABGAR-I Piqa succeeds until 68. 94 frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk 92 MRDK 354
c.92 Euphrates Meeting to determine policies and boundaries of Asia ProvinceSulla, praetor of Cilicia takes a higher seat than Orobaze, ambassador of Mith-II of Parthia.  Mith-II wants alliance with Rome, but refuses to help against Mith-VI of Pontus. 92 B76 9-843, CAH 9-603, LEWH 96
c.92 First Rome / Parthia treaty; ambassadors from Pacorus received by Sulla, praetor of Cilicia. 92 GHH, hifiP
c.90 GORDYENE, independent from 189, conquered by Armenia, and under it until 66. 90 rcT, wikGrd 88 wikTAH
c.90 Son of Mith-II, GOTARZES-I ends.  Contender king of Parthia from 95.  ORODES-I succeeds until 80. 90 icsPE, KoP, wikPE
87 wikP     80 hifiE, hifiP
90 BABYLON, under Arsacids from 129, under Mith-II of Parthia from ?, siezed by Gotarzes-I, Parthian satrap of Babylonia until 81. 91 B76 IV-644, ISBE 1-390
90 CAH 9-587
90 GOTARZES-I, Parthian satrap of Babylonia, becomes king of Babylonia until 81. 91 B76 IV-644, wikGt1 90 CAH 9-587
c.90/89 TIRAIOS-I ends.  King of Characene under Parthia from 95/4.  TIRAIOS-II does not succeed until 79/8. 90/89 wikCrc, wikPsk     61 rcM
c.88 ARTABANUS ends.  Arsacid king of Media from 97.  MITHRIDATES succeeds until 67. 88 wikPsk 77 wikP
c.88 Son of Artabanus-II, MITHRIDATES-II (Arsaces-XI) dies.  8th Arsacid king of Parthia from 124.  Anarchy follows until 77.  Son GOTARZES-I of Babyloniaia is dominant until 87.  Parthian power is diminished by dynastic feuds, while simultaneously, Roman authority in Anatolia is overthrown by Mith-VI of Pontus. 91 lvArs, lvT2, wikGt1, wikLPK, wikM2P, wikP     90 wikPE     88 B76 I-543, VI-945, KHA 67, LEWH 96, RAI2, RAI3, KoP, wikM2P, wikPE     88/7 OCD 123 87 B76 IX-1006, CAH 9, hifiE, hifiP
86 BHS 2-261
88 GOTARZES-I, Parthian king of Babylonia 90-81, intervenes in Syrian Civil War. 87 CAH 9-586
88 SINATRUCES defeated by GOTARZES-I, Parthian usurper of Babylonia, flees to Central Asian steppes. by 88/7 wikGt1
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, reconquers land on Median border. 87 Jud 4-37
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, invades Parthian Babylonia. 87 Jud 4-37
c.87 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56 returns from Babylonia to Armenia. 87 implied
87 Aug 6-19 HALLEY'S COMET recorded by Chinese and Babylonians. 87 MCAW 241, 269, wikHC
c.84 TIGRANES-II, king of Armenia 95-56, defeats Parthians and conquers part of Mesopotamia until 53. 84 atl1
c.82 ELYMAIS, section of south Parthia on Tigris and Gulf, Kamnaskires-II, becomes independent of Parthia (which is in anarchy 88-77). 82 CAH 9-587
c.81 Son of Mith-II, GOTARZES-I (Arsaces-XIII) ends.  Parthian king of Babylonia from 90, honcho of Parthia from 88.  Son of Mith-II, ORODES-I succeeds until 80.  But Parthia is in near anarchy 88-76. 90 wikPE     87 wikGt1, wikLPK 85 wikO1P     by 81 B76 IV-644 81/0 OCD 123     80 ISBE 1-390, RAI3, hifiP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE
Arsaces XIV, MITHRIDATES-III succeeds until 80/79 87 lvArs
80
Apr 11
LUNAR ECLIPSE reported in Babylon mentions Orodes-I as king of kings of the Arsacid dynasty. 80 wikO1P
c.79/8 TIRAIOS-II becomes king of Characene under Parthia until 49/8. 79/8 wikCrc, wikPsk     61 rcM
c.77 Son of Mith-II, ORODES-I (Arsaces-XV) ends.  Parthian king of Babylonia from 81 and contender king of Parthia from 90, deposed by Sinatruces with help of ScythiansSINATRUCES-I (Arsaces-XII) succeeds, age 80, until 70. 80 icsPE, KoP, wikO1P, wikPE
78 hifiE, hifiP, wikPE     77 CAH 9-587, hifiP, KoP, wikLPK, wikSnP     77/6 wikM2P
76 RAI3     76/5 B76 VIII-841, OCD 123     75 lvArs, wikLPK
c.70 SINATRUCES-I (Arsaces-XII) dies.  King of Babylonia & Parthia from 77, dies.  Son PHRAATES-III (Arsaces-XVII) succeeds until 57 (minus Babylonia until 56). 71 wikPE     70 B76 I-543, VII-971, 9-843, CAH 9-587, DGRBM 1-355, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE, wikPr3, wikSnP     70/69 B76 VIII-841, OCD 123, lvArs     68 GHH
c.69 2nd? Rome / Parthia treaty; Euphrates is the agreed boundary between them. 69 icsPE, lvPE, wikPE
c.68 ABGAR-I Piqa ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 94.  Son ABGAR-II succeeds until 52. 68 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.66 GORDYENE, under Armenia from 90, comes under Rome until 65.  Pompey makes TIGRANES the younger client king. 66 DGRBM 3-1128, rcT
c.66 CARRHAE (Haran) comes under Parthia. 66 hifiE
c.64 L. AFRANIUS pursues Parthians beyond the Tigris into Adiabene as far as Arbela. 64 CAH 9-263
c.64/3 L. AFRANIUS withdraws in winter from the dry steppes of Mesopotamia, has supply problems, solved by Carrhae, before he reaches north Syria. 64 CAH 9-263
58 BABYLON comes under Mithridates until 57, and under Parthia until 55. 58 GHH, ISBE 1-390
c.57 Son of Sinatruces, PHRAATES-III (Arsaces-XVII) dies.  Parthian king of Babylonia and Parthia from 70, murdered by sons.  Son ORODES-II (Arsaces-XX) succeeds until 57.  Son MITHRIDATES-III or IV succeeds as king of Media until 57. 60 GHH, 58 hifiE, hifiP, wikPE
58/7 B76 I-543, VII-971, 9-843, OCD 123, lvArs     57 B76 VII-592, 971, CAH 9-271, 604, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, icsPE, KoP, wikLPK, wikM3P, wikO2P, wikP, wikPE, wikPr3     56 CDCC 649
57 Babylon besieged by Orodes-II. 57 GHH
56 Babylon surrenders to Orodes-II. 56 GHH
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS, proconsul of Syria 57-54, is persuaded by Arsacid Mith-III to restore him to throne of Parthia, crosses Euphrates into Mesopotamia. Ant 14:6:2
55 CAH 9-271, 604, DGRBM 1-356, atl1
c.55 Arsacid Mith-III, supported by Aulus Gabinius and previously deposed Orodes II, the reigning monarch is defeated near Seleucia on the Tigris, allowing Orodes to re-establish himself as king. 55 wikSl
c.55 Aulus(5) GABINIUS, proconsul of Syria 57-54, gets better offer from Ptolemy-XII Auletes, and returns to Syria. Ant 14:6:2
55 CAH 9-271, 604, DGRBM 1-356, atl1
55 Babylon under Orodes-II from 56, no longer so. 55 ISBE 1-390
c.53 M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS proconsul of Syria 54-3, crosses Euphrates at Zeugma, invades Parthian Mesopotamia, violating treaties of 69 & 66. 54 GHH, atl1
53 B76 9-843, MCAW 254, lvA, wikPE, wikRPW
53 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS proconsul of Syria, scornfully rejects complaints from Parthian king Orodes-II about invasion of Mesopotamia. 53 atl1
53 Mesopotamia overrun by Crassus on his approach toward Parthia. 55 GHH     54 atl1
c.53 ABGAR-II bar Abgar, king of Osroene at Edessa 68-52, deliberately leads Crassus in wrong direction. 53 atl1,
c.53 May 6 Battle of CARRHAE (Haran):  M. Licinius CRASSUS with 44,000 troops is defeated by Parthian general SURENA with 10,000 horse archers & 1,000 knights.  1st use of a plentiful reserve of arrows.  The younger P. Crassus and his officers, seeing no hope of escape, suicide.  20,000 troops survive to retreat to Syria. 54 Jud 5-1059     53 B76 IV-899, VII-592, 9-843, 17-950, CAH 9-606-11, CDCC 242, DGRBM 1-356, GHH, ISBE 3-671, Jud 4-37, 5-1059, LEWH 96, MCAW 254, anan, atl1, bk, hifiP, lvA, wikGCL, wikPE, wikPr, wikRPW, wikTAR
c.53 Mesopotamia reconquered by Parthians. 53 atl1
c.52 ABGAR-II bar Abgar ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 68.  MANU-II succeeds until 34. 53 frH     52 MRDK 354, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.49/8 TIRAIOS-II dies.  King of Characene under Parthia from 79/8, age 92.  ARTABAZOS succeeds until 48/7. 49/8 wikCrc, wikPsk 48 atl1     44 rcM
c.48/7 ARTABAZOS ends.  King of Characene under Parthia from 49/8.  ATTAMBELOS-I succeeds until 25/4. 48/7 wikCrc, wikPsk
41 5,000 Babylonian Jews of Seleucia on Tigris massacred by Greeks to prevent them from helping the SyriansSurvivors take refuge in Ctesiphon. Antiq 18:9:9
41 Jud 5-1146, wikSl
41 ORODES-II, Parthian king of Babylonia and Parthia 57-38/7, gathers troops in Mesopotamia in case Antony invades. 41 CAH 10-12
41 MARION tyrant of Tyre from 42, flees to Orodes-III of Parthia, whom he supports. 41 hifiT
38/7 Son of Phraates-III, ORODES-II (Arsaces XIX or XX) dies.  Parthian king of Babylonia and Parthia from 57, is apparently insane.  Son PHRAATES-IV (Arsaces XV) takes throne, murders dad, and succeeds until 2BC.  He also murders his 30 bros, and his own son. 39 hifiE, hifiP     38 CDCC 649, MCAW 260, OCD 828, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE     38/7 OCD 123     37 B76 VII-592, 972, 9-844, CAH 10-71, GHH, LEWH 96, RAI3, atl1, bk, wikO2P, wikPr4
Orodes-II abdicates. 38/7 CAH 10-28
36 ANTONY moves from Armenia to invade Parthian Mesopotamia. 36 B76 VII-972, CDCC 54, GHH, MCAW 260, cnfl, icsPE, wikMA, wikPE
36 Oc/Nv ANTONY defeated, retreats, loses 80,000 men before reaching borders of Armenia. 36 CAH 10-74, KHA 87
35 Mennius, exilarch in Babylon from ?, dies.  Ptolemy bar Mennius succeeds until 13. 35 hawa, prgE
c.34 MANU-II ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 52.  PAQOR (Faquri) succeeds until 29. 34 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
32 TIRIDATES-II rebels against PHRAATES-IV king of Babylonia and Parthia.  Initially successful, but fails by 25. 32 wikPr
32 Son of Orodes-II, PHRAATES-IV ends.  King of Babylonia and Parthia from 38, in Mesopotamia from 38/7, forced out by rebel Tiridates-II supported by Romans.  TIRIDATES-II does not succeed until 30. 32 OCD 123, toward 30 B76 9-844
30 TIRIDATES-II succeeds as king of Babylonia and Parthia until 25. 30 OCD 123
30 MEDIA, under Tiridates from ?, taken by PHRAATES-IV of Parthia, who restores ARTAXES to Armenian throne until 20. 30 CAH 10-79
c.29 PAQOR (Faquri), king of Osroene at Edessa from 34, ends.  ABGAR-III succeeds until 26. 29 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
26 spring TIRIDATES, pretender to Arsacid throne 30-25, under Roman protection in Syria from 30, again invades Parthian Mesopotamia as far as Babylonia. 28/7 B76 9-844 27 lvArs     26 B76 X-2, OCD 1078
25 OCD 1078
c.26 ABGAR-III ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 29.  ABGAR-IV Sumaqa succeeds until 23. 26 MRDK 354, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
25 May TIRIDATES-II, pretender to Arsacid throne from 30, repelled by Phraates-IV.  His rebellion from 32 ends. 25 OCD 123, 1078, wikPr
c.25/4 ATTAMBELOS-I ends.  King of Characene under Parthia from 48/7.  THEONESIOS-I does not succeeds until 19/8. 40 rcM     25/4 wikCrc, wikPsk
c.23 ABGAR-IV Sumaqa, king of Osroene at Edessa from 26, ends.  MANU-III Saphul succeeds until 4. 23 MRDK 355, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.19/8 THEONESIOS-I becomes king of Characene under Parthia and ends.  ATTAMBELOS-II does not succeeds until 17/6. 40 rcM     19/8 wikCrc, wikPsk
c.17/6 ATTAMBELOS-II becomes king of Characene under Parthia until 8/9CE. 30 rcM
17/6 wikCrc, wikPsk
c.13 Ptolemy bar Mennius, exilarch in Babylon from 35, deposed by Roman campaign into Mesopotamia, flees with his family to Parthia, whose king gives him refuge.  No exilarch until 31CE. 13 hawa, prgE
c.4 MANU-III Saphul ends.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 23.  Son ABGAR-IV Ukkama succeeds until 7CE. 4 MRDK 355, frH, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.2 Son of Orodes-II, PHRAATES-IV (Arsaces XXII) dies.  14th Arsacid king of Parthia from 37, poisoned by wife Musa (an Italian slave donated by Augustus) and their bastard son Phraateces, who marries his mom and succeeds as PHRAATES-V until 5CE. 3 MCAW 272, hifiE, hifiP, 2 B76 VII-972, 9-844, CAH 10-160, 275, OCD 123, 828, icsPE, KoP, lvArs, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE, wikPr4, wikPr5