Syria-Armenia Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Parthia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.63 Gn. Domitius CORBULO governor of Syria 60-3, with a strong army, crosses the EuphratesTiridates sends message to Corbulo, wants to talk at Rhandea.  Corbulo accepts.  Ti. Julius Alexander escorts Tiridates and Monobazus to the Roman camp..  At Rhandea Tiridates puts his crown at the foot of the emperor's statue, promising not to resume it until he receives it from Nero himself in Rome. TAn 15:28, 30 63 CDCC 234, DGRBM 2-1164, Jud 15-1135, wikGDC, wikNr, wikTJA
64 DGRBM 1-126, 2-1112
c.63 Terms of pacification between Vologases and Corbulo.  Rome to evaccuate east bank of Euphrates  Vologases evaccuates Armenia. TAn 15:17
c.63 SOPHENE under king Soaemus from 54, annexed by Rome. 63 hifi
c.63 Gn. Domitius CORBULO governor of Syria from 60, promoted to commander of the East, with powers equal to those of Pompey to conduct Parthian campaign.  C. ITIUS succeeds as governor of Syria until ?. TAn 15:25 61 LEWH 63 rcS
c.63 Gn. Domitius CORBULO, commander of East with reinforced army, enters Armenia, drives out nobles who had been hostile to RomeTi. Julius Alexander accompanies. TAn 15:27
63 RPar 286
64 DGRBM 1-126
c.63 TIGRANES-VI and 2 legions at Tigranocerta, attacked by Parthians and Adiabenes, who put up a clumsy siege. TAn 15:4
63 DGRBM 2-1112
attacked by Moneses and Monobazus in 62. RPar 281
c.63 Rome / Parthia War from 58 ends with  Treaty of Rhandea Romans agree to allow Tiridates and his descendants to rule Armenia if they receive kingship from RomeRome will support an Arsacid as a Roman client in Armenia if Tiridates will lay down his crown before the image of Nero, and go to Rome as a vassal.  It is agreed that Vologases has the right to nominate Armenian kings, but only Rome has the right to crown them.  This keeps peace until 113.  Armenia is protected by Rome until 72 TAn 15:29 63 B76 18-1041, GHH, ada, caisAD, hifi, wikAdA, wikPE, wikHA, wikRPW
c.63 TIRIDATES-I, bro of Vologases, former king of Armenia 53-60, goes, with his whole family, to Naples and Rome to get Nero to accept him as king of Armenia.  Restored as a Roman client until 88.  This means TIGRANES-VI, Artaxiad king from 58, is deopsed. TAn 15:29     62 hifi, wikLAK 63 B76 18-1041, DGRBM 1-359, 363, GHH, HRRP 4.2-494, OCD 119, ada, eiArs, rcCau, wikAdA, wikPE, wikTg6     66 B76 9-845, caisAD     66 wikAdA
c.63 Gn. Domitius CORBULO commander of the East 63, recalled by Nero.  Cestius GALLUS succeeds until 67. 63 wikRGS     63 or 65 Jud 5-315, OCD 224     64 DGRBM 2-226     66 B76 III-143
c.63 TIGRANES-VI dies. Former Artaxiad king of Armenia 60-63. 63 GHH
c.63 ARSACID DYNASTY resumes in Armenia until 428. 63 CDCC 80
c.64 Cestius GALLUS, governor of Syria 63-7, is conducted as far south as Caesarea by Gessius Florus. Wars 2:14:3 64 Jud 5-315
c.64 P. Marius CELSUS, commander of 15th legion in Pannonia, sent to join Corbulo in Partian campaign. 64 DGRBM 1-663
c.64 Cestius GALLUS, governor of Syria 63-7, returns from Judea to Antioch. Wars 2:14:3 64 Jud 5-315
66 July Cestius GALLUS governor of Syria 63-7, hears messenger from Gessius Florus telling him Jerusalem had revolted.  Also receives messages from Jews, explaining their side of it.  Having little or no battle experience, Cestius sends tribune Neapolitanus to investigate. Wars 2:16:1 66 Jud 5-315, jos2
66 NEAPOLITANUS returns from Judea, tells Cestius GALLUS that Gessius Florus is responsible for the revolt in Jerusalem. 66 Jud 5-315
c.66 TIRIDATES visits his mom and 2 bros in Media Atropatene and Parthia before going to Rome 2nd time. 66 wikTr1
c.66 TIRIDATES, Parthian bro of Vologases-I, and 300 nobles king of Armenia 63-88 parades thru Syria with 3,000 Parthian cavalry, and then goes by land to Rome 2nd time to get throne.  Journey takes 9 months. TAn 15:1, 14     66 B76 9-845, CAH 10-734, DGRBM 2-1112, GHH, IDB 3-538, 972, LEWH, OCD 729, RPar 287, eiArs, wikTr1
Zoroastrians are supposed to avoid traveling by water, because water is holy.  This convention was ignored in previous trips.   wikTr1
66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, in Caesarea Philippi from 44, goes to Cestius Gallus at Antioch. Wars 2:18:6
66 Oc/Nv Cestius GALLUS governor of Syria 63-7, reluctantly marches legion XII Fulminata & auxiliaries south to Ptolemais.  Auxiliaries: Antiochus-IV of Commagene: 3,000 inf, 2,000 cav, 3,000 archers; Agrippa-II: 3,000 inf, 1,000 cav; Soaemus of Emesa: 4,000 troops. Wars 2:18:9
66 BNTH 381, CAH 10-730, GHH, Jud 11-619, jos2
66/7 Cestius GALLUS, having lost 5,300 inf and 380 cav, returns from Antipatris to Antioch. Wars 2:19:9
c.67 Cestius GALLUS dies.  Governor of Syria from 63.  Nero appoints C. Licinius MUCIANUS to succeed until 69. 67 Jud 5-315, OCD 224, 702, rcS, wikRGS, wikCG, wikCLM
c.67 TIRIDATES, king of Armenia 63-88, returns from Rome to Armenia, brings many skilled artisans for the reconstruction of Artaxata, which he renames Neronia.  Peace between Parthia and Rome lasts until 114. 67 implied
no date: wikTr1
c.67 T. Flavius VESPASIAN comes from Greece to Anatolia, travels by land to Antioch, meets Agrippa-II. Wars 3:1:3 67 IDB 2-592
67 T. Flavius VESPASIAN, with legion XV Apollinaris (and promise of 2 more) goes from Antioch to Ptolemais. Wars 3:1:3     67 B76 10-278, 19-95, BI+N 222, CAH 10, IDB 2-866, Jud 2-222, 10-251, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 1080, 1115, TTPC
68 Jun NERO dies.   Year of 4 emperors begins until 70.
c.68 Church center, Antioch from 44 because it was Paul's home base, shifts to Ephesus until 100. 68 Qlb 43
c.68 EUODIUS dies (How is disputed).  2nd bishop of Antioch from 53, ends.  IGNATIUS succeeds until 107. 64 DDS 214
68 odwLPA, wikLPA
69 DGRBM 2-564, NPNF 167, ODCC 688, gnwd, wikEv, wikLPA
c.69 Feb? Governor of Syria, MUCIANUS, with legions IV Scythica, VI Ferrata, XII Fulminata, and III Gallica, sware allegiance to Otho. THs 1:76 fyf
69 May C. Licinius MUCIANUS, legate of Syria 63-9, asks Vespasian to challenge Vitellius. 69 wikVs
c.69 ZARBIENUS, king of Gordyene (Corduene), appeals to Appius Claudius at Antiochia against aggression by Tigranes-II. no date: DGRBM 3-1310
69 VESPASIAN goes from Judea to Antioch. Wars 4:11:1     69 B76 19-96, LEWH, TTPC, wikLRGS
c.69 C. Licinius MUCIANUS, legate of Syria from 63, partisan of Vespasian, is sent by Vespasian for Dyrrhachium to prepare a fleet.  .  Because sailing is dangerous in winter, Mucianus takes Legion VI Ferrata and detachments from other Eastern legions by land thru Cappadocia and PhrygiaL. Caesennius PAETUS succeeds 70-72. THs 2:83, Wars 4:11:1
69 LEWH, TTPC, fyf, wikRGS
c.69 ZARBIENUS dies.  King of Gordyene (Corduene) from ?, murdered with wife & kids by Tigranes-II. 69 wikPsk
69 Jul C. Licinius MUCIANUS, legate of Syria 63-9, makes a speech to the populace in the theater at Antioch supporting Vespasian as emperor. 69 CAH 10-736, fyf
69 by Jul 15 All legions of Syria have sworn allegiance to Vespasian as emperor. THs 2:81
69 Dec 20 VITELIUS dies.  VESPASIAN succeeds until 79.
c.70 SELEUCIA PIERIA confirmed as a free city by Romans. 70 IDB 4-265
c.70 Eastern legions are moved from Syria to forts on the Euphrates.  e.g. Satala, Melitene, Samosata 70 LEWH
c.70 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, declares for Vespasian. 70 DGRBM 1-194
c.70 Apr ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, sends troops to help Titus besiege Jerusalem . 70 DGRBM 1-194
c.70 Eastern frontier is consolidated against possible attack from Armenia or Parthia 70 LEWH
c.70 TITUS comes from Berytus to Antioch, then goes to Zeugma on Euphrates, confirms subordinate position of Vologases of Parthia, returns to Antioch.  Inhabitants ask him to expel the Jews, and destroy the tablets on which Jewish privileges are inscribedTitus refuses. Wars 7:5:2 70 Jud 3-71
c.71 TITUS goes from Antioch back thru Palestine to Alexandria. Wars 7:5:3
c.71 MANU-VI, king of Osroene at Edessa from 57, ends.  ABGAR-VI succeeds until 91 71 rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
c.72 ALANI, Scythian nomads near the Sea of Azov cross the Iron Gates plunder Media Atropatene and north Armenia. Wars 7:7:4     70 hifi
72 wikAl, wikTAH, wikTr1     75 RPar 294
c.72 ARMENIA, under protection of Rome from 63, under Tiridates-I 61-88, overrun by ALANI. Wars 7:7:4     72 KHA 96, OCD 1078, wikTr1 75 CAH 11
c.72 Tiridates-I and bro Pacorus king of Media Atropatene fight the Alani, who go home with loot. 72 wikTr1
c.72 L. Caesennius PAETUS, legate of Syria 70-72, messages Vespasian in Rome that he discovered a plot between Antiochus-IV of Commagene and Vologases to defect to Parthia. Wars 7:7:1
72 DGRBM 1-194, 3-1248, OCD 73, RPar 293
c.72 Vespasian empowers Caesennius Paetus, legate in Syria, to act against Antiochus-IV of Commagene and Vologaces. 72 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH
c.72 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, takes wife and daus to Cilicia for safety. Wars 7:7:2
c.72 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene from 41, deposed by L. Caesennius Paetus for alleged Parthian sympathies. 72 B76 VIII-836, CAH 11-237, DGRBM 1-194, IDB 3-194, OCD 73, 273, anan
c.72 :VOLOGASES-II, king of Parthia 52-78, sends embassy to Vespasian to intercede for Antiochus of Commagene. 72 DGRBM 1-359
c.72 L. Caesennius PAETUS invades Commagene, marches on Samosata, defeats sons of Antiochus-IV, EPIPHANES and CALLINICUS, who escape to Parthia. 72 CAH 11-139-40
c.72 SAMOSATA, Capital of Commagene from , surrenders to Paetus, under Rome until ?. 72 B76 VIII-836, CDCC 782
c.72 COMMAGENE, client kingdom from 38, becomes a Roman province, annexed to province of Syria. 72 B76 III-36, VIII-836. CAH 10-730, 11-237, DGRBM 3-1248, HRE 113, OCD 73, 273, ada, anan, wikRCmg 73 DGRG 1-651, rcT
c.72 L. Caesennius PAETUS, legate of Syria from 70, ends.  A. Marius CELSUS succeeds until 73. 72 wikRGS
c.72 Apostle JUDE martyred.  Bro of James, crucified at Edessa in Osroene. 72 FBM 18
c.73 A. Marius CELSUS, gov of Syria from 72, ends.  M. Ulpius TRAIANUS succeeds until 78. 73 wikRGS
c.75 ROAD built connecting Palmya to Sura on the Euphrates. 75 wikPlm
c.75 :VOLOGASES-II, king of Parthia 52-78, asks Vespasian to help Parthia against the AlaniVespasian declines. 75 DGRBM 1-359
c.75 MONOBAZ-II bar Monobaz, king of Adiabene from 58, dies. 75 wikPsk
75 Bro of Vologases-II, PACORUS, king of Media Atropatene from 52, ends. 75 wikPsk 78 wikAtr
c.78 M. Ulpius TRAIANUS, gov of Syria from 73, ends.  L. Ceionius COMMODUS succeeds until 82. 78 wikRGS
c.78 EXEDARES becomes king of Armenia until 120 (with several forced exits). 78 DGRBM 1-363, GHH     110 rcCau
79 Jun 23/4 VESPASIAN dies.   TITUS succeeds until 81.
c.80 LUCIUS dies.  1st bishop of Laodicea Syria from ?. no date: DDS 67
c. 80 Syrian Stoic philosopher Mara bar Serapion, in prison, writes a  letter to his son , Serapion, notable for a reference to Jesus:
What benefit did the Athenians obtain by putting Socrates to death, seeing that they received as retribution for it famine and pestilence?  Or the people of Samos by the burning of Pythagoras, seeing that in one hour their country was covered with sand?  Or the Jews by the murder of their Wise King, seeing that from that very time their kingdom was driven away from them?  For with justice did God grant a recompense to the wisdom of all 3 of them.  For the Athenians died by famine;  and the people of Samos were covered by the sea without remedy;  and the Jews, brought to desolation and expelled from their kingdom, are driven away into every land.  Nay, Socrates did not die, because he lived on in Plato; nor Pythagoras, because he lived on in the statue of Hera;  nor the Wise King, because he lived on in the new laws which he enacted.
soon after 73 BNTD 114, wikMBS
c.80 ANTHRAX sweeps the Roman empire, killing thousands of people and animals, clear to the Chinese border. 80 TTPC
c.81 EMESA Syria becomes a Roman province. 81 HRE 113
c.81 PLINY the Younger is a military tribune in Legion-III Gallica in Syria, probably for 6 months. 81 wikPlnY
81 Sep 13 TITUS dies.   DOMITIAN succeeds until 96.
c.82 L. Ceionius COMMODUS, gov of Syria from 78, ends.  Governor of Pannonia from 79, T. Atilius RUFUS succeeds until 84. 82 wikRGS
c.84 T. Atilius RUFUS dies.  Gov of Syria from 82.  No data until 87. 84 DGRBM 3-670, wikRGS
c.87 P. Valerius PATRUINUS becomes gov of Syria until 90. 87 wikRGS
c.87 An Aramaic inscription found near Tbilisi indicates that Tiridates-I warred with Iberia during his final years. wikTr1
c.88 TIRIDATES-I, Parthian king of Armenia from 63, ends.  SANATRUK succeeds until 110. 75 KHA 96, anan, bdrs     post-75 OCD 119, rcCau     75 or 88 ada     88 wikAdA, wikLAK
Tiridates dies in 100. RPar 300
c.88 Terentius Maximus, 3rd of 3 NERO Λ IMPERSONATORS appears supported by Parthians, who, after a threatening letter from Domitian, reluctantly give him up for extradition. 88 BNTH 410, wikNr 89 HRRP 4.2-715
c.90 P. Valerius PATRUINUS, gov of Syria from 87, ends.  A. Bucius LAPPIUS MAXIMUS succeeds until 93. 90 wikRGS
c.90 PACORUS-II, king of Parthia 81-108, makes a treaty with Rome. 90 GHH
c.91 ABGAR-VI, king of Osroene at Edessa from 71, ends.  SANATRUK, king of Armenia, succeeds until 109.  91 rcT, wikOs, wikPsk, wikSnt
c.92 CHALCIS, under tetrarch Aristobulus from 57, becomes a Roman province under Syria. 92 CAH 11-40, HRE 113, wikHrD, wikKC     93 IDB 2-773, ISBE 2-940
c.93 A. Bucius LAPPIUS MAXIMUS, gov of Syria from 90, ends.  C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L. JAVOLENUS PRISCUS succeeds until 96. 93 wikRGS
c.96 C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L. JAVOLENUS PRISCUS, gov of Syria from 93, ends.  M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius MATERNUS succeeds until 97. 96 wikRGS
96 Sep 18 Empire 96CEDOMITIAN dies.  NERVA succeeds until 98.
c.97 M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius MATERNUS, gov of Syria from 96, ends.  A. LARCIUS PRISCUS succeeds until 100. 97 wikRGS
100 A. LARCIUS PRISCUS, gov of Syria from 97, ends.  C. Antius Aulus Julius QUADRATUS succeeds until 104. 100 wikRGS
by 100 CHRISTIANITY: Strongly represented in Anatolia mostly, also Syria, Macedonia, Greece, and Rome - which has the largest congregation.  Moderately in Egypt. 100 WHCC 37
c.100 IGNATIUS of Antioch says, "Where Christ is, there is the Catholic Church." 100 B76 6-146
100±20 Syrian  CHURCH ORDER   Didache ch 7-15 , composed in Syria. 100 IDB 1-842
100-200 B76 III-533