Levant
c.200 APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE genre begins in Judea until 200CE. 200 B76 I-445
c.200 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander in Coele-Syria, is defeated by Antiochus-III Megas at PANEAS (Panias, Panion, Paneion, Panium) in north Palestine.  Scopas with 10,000 men flees to Sidon.  Ptolemy-V makes an ineffectual attempt to relieve him. Ant 12:3:3       200 B76 1-993, 6-482, 8-379, 383, CAH 7.1-184, 442, 8-165, CHJ 2-71, 75, IDB 1-480, Jud 14-1507, LEWH 93, Shaw 394, bk, lvA3, wikHD, wikPan     198 1&2BM 2, B76 1-947, 17-947, DGRBM 1-197, IDB 1-150, ISBE 1-144, 2-417, 3-1049, Sdl 5-236, VDJD 69, wikP6
no date: DGRBM 3-754
c.200 Jewish militia helps Antiochus-III dislodge the Egyptian garrison from the Jerusalem citadel. 200 E2LM 56
c.200  MISHNA  "study of repetition" begins:  1st written collection of Jewish oral traditions - "Oral Torah", a method of teaching by presenting topics by subject matter, instead of by biblical context.  Rabbis who contribute are called Tannaim. 200 bihi
c.200 ANTIGONUS of SOCO (Sokho, Socho), pupil of Simon the Just, head of Sanhedrin?, Jewish sage, flourishes.  Known for piety, benevolence, and an ambiguous statement about the existence of an afterlife:
"Be not like servants that minister to the master on condition of receiving reward, but be like srevants that minister to the master without condition of receiving reward; and let the fear of heaven be upon you".
Ant 12:2:5
Mishna: Avoth 1:3
200 Mish I-505, ISBE 4-515,
late 200s-
early 100s
Jud 3-67
180 IDB 2-14
no date:
Jud 16-1232
c.200 SADDUCEES founded by Zadok, disciple of Antigonus of Soco.  Priests, aristocrats, wealthy merchants who reject afterlife and oral law. 284 GHH
200 Jud 14-620, VDJD 103
c.200 Temple at Lachish rebuilt. 200 Jud 10-1334
c.200 SOFERIM "scribes" Scholars who interpreted Jewish law from time of Ezra, end.  PHARISEES take over their function. 200 B76 IX-322
c.200 Belief in RESURRECTION of the dead (or at least some of them) emerges. 200 IDB 3-655
c.200 AMMON, under Seleucids from 301, independent until 160. 200 hifiAm, rcJdn
c.200 IDUMEA, in unknown condition from 275, comes under Seleucids until 165. 200 rcHL
c.200  Macedonian CALENDAR , used in Judea from 332, reverts to Babylonian until ?. 200 B76 3-600
c.200  FINAL CANON  on books of prophets  Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Minor Prophets  clamps the lid on prophesy.   Book of Daniel  is not mentioned here or in any other known writing. 200 IDB 1-501-2, 508
c.200  Hephzibah Inscriptions   Contain:
1.  a letter from Ptolemy-? to commander of Coele-Syria favorable to Jews.
2.  extracts from a royal edict, 6 aimed at safeguarding ritual purity of Jerusalem and its Temple
3.  6 letters dating 201-195 concerning estates of commander Ptolemy son of Thraseas, in the plain of Megiddo.  Antiochus-III gives thanks for the support of the Jews during campaigns in their district.
201-195 CHJ 2-72-4
c.200 HEBREW LETTERS change shape from angular paleo-Hebrew to square shape used by Aramaic speakers. 200 BBP 29, 120
c.200 MIDDLE ARAMAIC PERIOD begins until 200-500CE.  (aka Middle Hebrew, Mishnaic Hebrew)     This overlaps the Old Aramaic Period (1100BC - 200CE).  The homogeneity of earlier Aramaic breaks up, and different forms and dialects appear. 200
CHJ 2-93, IDB 2-559, wikAL
c.200  2 Books of TOBIT (Tobiah)  written in Hebrew or Aramaic in EgyptJewish piety mixed with folklore.    Vindicates Yaweh as good despite existing evil in world.  Tobit, a pious Jew exiled in Nineveh in the 7th century, does good deeds, and is supernaturally delivered from horrific affliction along with son Tobias, and son's wife Sarah.  "What you yourself hate, do to no man".  Borrows from Story of Ahikar 500.  Makes Ahikar Tobit's nephew and treasurer of Sennacherib and Esarhaddon. 3-200 CHJ 2-477, Sdl 5-162
259 IDB 2-712
250-175 CBCNT 58 225-200 AΨA 174 200 BBP 157, ODCC 1382, lvCrn 200-170 IDB 4-658 200-160 BBT
180 MNDQ 471     175-164 B76 X-18
c.199 SCOPAS, Egyptian commander in Coele-Syria, besieged in Sidon from 200 by Antiochus-III Megas, compelled by famine to surrender in exchange for safe conduct.  Scopas flees to Egypt, where he still has high favor. 199 CAH 8-173, CHJ 2-72
198 DHJ 469
c.199 RABBAH (called Philadelphia by Ptolemies) Ammon, under Antiochus-III from 218, comes under the Lagides. 199 IDB 4-2
c.199 JOSEPH ben Tobiah, chief Egyptian tax collector of Coele Syria from 219, dies.  Youngest son Hyrcanus takes over his office.  Joseph's sons quarrel over division of his wealth, the elder sons refusing to allow half-bro Hyrcanus any share of it. Ant 12:4:10
199 wikTb
Josephus' account is screwed!  You can't tell which Onias or Ptolemy he is talking about.
c.198 GEBAL (formerly Byblos), under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until ?.   See 68. 198 rcLeb
c.198 PHOENICIA, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 68.. 198 rcLeb
c.198 BEYRYT (Berytus) Lebanon, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 82. 198 rcLeb
c.198 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Phoenicia, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 168.. 198 Jud 7-1476, rcLeb
c.198 ABILA, capital of Abilene, northwest of Damascus, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 85.. Ant 12:3:3 198 rcS
c.198 ATHAR, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 111..  Name changed to TRIPOLIS. 198 CHJ 2-72, rcLeb
c.198 TYRE, under Ptolemies from 301, taken by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, under Seleucids until 126. 200 B76 X-223, Jud 15-1489, OCD 1102     198 ISBE 4-934, rcLeb
c.198 BETH YERAH, under Ptolemies from ?, taken by Antiochus-III.  Under Seleucids until ?. 198 Jud 4-780
c.198 SIDON, under Ptolemies from 294, taken by Antiochus-III.  Under Seleucids until 112. 198 IDB 1-150, rcLeb 197 ISBE 4-502
c.198 Λ DAMASCUS, under Ptolemies from ?, comes under Seleucids until 167. 198 rcS
c.198 PTOLEMAIS (formerly Acco), under Ptolemies from 217, taken by Antiochus-III after Paneas.  Under Seleucids until 175. 198 rcHL
c.198 BASHAN, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 85. 198 rcS
c.198 HAMATH, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 68.. 198 rcS
c.198 GALILEE, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 104.. 198 rcHL
c.198 GERASA, city in northeast Jordan, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 110.. 198 rcHL, rcJdn
c.198 SAMARIA, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 107.. Ant 12:3:3 198 rcHL
c.198 JOPPA, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 159?.. 198 rcHL
c.198 COELE-SYRIA, Gaza area, under Ptolemies from 217, ceded to Antiochus-IIIUnder Seleucids until 146, dowery? 193. 200 CAH 7.1-4, lvA, lv5SW
198 1&2BM 2, B76 1-947, 17-947, BNTH 2, GHH,
IDB 1-150, atl2, hifi
c.198 SIMON-2 ben Onias, high priest 219-198, opens the gates of Jerusalem to Antiochus-III.  The people of Jerusalem hail him as liberator and are rewarded for their subserviance. 198 CHJ 2-604, DHJ 478
c.198 JUDEA, under Ptolemies from 217, taken by Antiochus-IIIUnder Seleucids until 166. 198 1&2BM 20, IDB 1-500, rcHL
c.198 BETH SHAN (Shean), in north Jordan valley, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 107. 198 rcCan
c.198 GAZARA (Gezer), on plain of Sharon, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 167. Ant 12:3:3 198 rcCan
c.198 ASHDOD (Azotus), under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 165.. 198 rcHL
c.198 ASKALON, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 104.. 198 rcHL
c.198 GAZA, under Ptolemies from 301, taken by Antiochus-III, destroyed, comes under Seleucids until 150.. 198 DGRG 1-980, Jud 7-340, rcHL
c.198 GATH, under Ptolemies from 301, comes under Seleucids until 167.. 198 rcHL
c.198 Son of Onias-II, SIMON-II dies.  high priest from 219.  Son ONIAS-III succeeds until 174. Ant 12:4:10     199 AΨA 293
198 CBCNT 70, CHJ 2, IDB 4-357, Mish 4-490, af     196 ISBE 4-515     195 GHH 191 atl2     190 bivu     185 gw, hifi, rvlv, wikHP
c.198 ONIAS-III, high priest 198-74, sides with elder Tobiads against Hyrcanus. no date: mnls
c.198 JERUSALEM, under Ptolemies from 201 and sick of it, helps Antiochus-III expell the Egyptian garrisonremains under Seleucid control until 164. 198
Jud 3-73, Sdl 5-289
c.198 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, rewards Jews by restoring Jerusalem, granting it tax exemption for 3 years, funds for the temple, and limited self government. 198 Jud 3-73
c.198 ANTIOCHUS-III withdraws to Antioch. 198 BHS 2-38
c.195 HANNIBAL sails from Thapsus to Tyre, then goes to Antioch. 195 B76 8-384, 627, CAH 8-191, LdHR 2-36
c.195 5th SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 202, ends until 170Antiochus-III gets southern Syria. 195 B76 1-994, CDCC 857, LEWH 93, 97, atl2, lvA
c.193 SYRO / EGYPT TREATY  at Raphia.  Seleucids dominate EgyptCLEOPATRA-I SYRA, dau of Antiochus-III, age 10, marries Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, age 16, until 181. Ant 12:4:1       200 lvA3     194 CAH 8, MCAW     194/3 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-343, CHJ 2-76     193 B76 II-989, DGRBM 1-799, GHH, ISBE 3-1049, Jud 5-603, wikC1S     193/2 BHS 2-57, DGRBM 3-591     192 IDB 3-198, 966
c.193 COELE-SYRIA, including Judea, under Antiochus-III from 198, given to his dau Cleopatra (Cleo-I) as a dowry, which means it should go to her husband Ptolemy-V Epiphanes, but Seleucids remain in control until 146. Ant 12:4:1
193 Jud 5-603 192 IDB 3-198
This may never have happened. wikC1
c.191 JOSE ben Joezer becomes Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) until 140. 191 rcHL
c.191 Joseph the Tobiad retires from tax-collecting in Judea and Phoenicia. 191 atl2
c.190 Ben Sira urges the people to honor the priest, and give him his due according to the Law.  Acknowledges high priest authority over statutes and judgments, but it is the scribe who advises the rulers and the assembly. 190 E2LM 68
c.187 TEMPLE of Jerusalem plundered by Antiochus-III to pay the Roman indemnity. 187 MCAW
c.185 HYRCANUS ben Joseph, Egyptian tax collector, visits Alexandria, charms and bribes his way to favor of Ptolemy-V.  When he returns, his half-bros lay in wait to kill him.  A battle ensues in which Hyrcanus and companions kill 2 of his half-bros.  Jerusalem shuts its gates to him. 187 GHH
185 atl2
no date: btst
c.181 HYRCANUS ben Joseph is forced by his half brothers to leave Judea and settle east of river Jordan.  He builds a castle, continues collecting taxes, and amassing wealth until 175. 187 GHH
181 atl2
c.180 Heliodoros, a Seleucid official tries to extort money from the temple treasury, and fails. 180 E2LM 83
c.180 Λ Book of ENOCH V  ch 91-108  (Epistle of ENOCH)  blessings and an apocalypse.  Except 105 is probably a Christian interpollation. 200-170 lv1E     100 B76 2-937
c.180  Book of SIRACH (ECCLESIASTICUS)  written in Hebrew by religiously conservative scribe Jeshua ben Eleazar ben Sira in Jerusalem (now extant only in translations).  Scripture (39:1) is divided into 3 parts:
    the Law of the Most High
    the Wisdom of the Ancients
    Prophesies
 Books of Daniel and Esther  are the only OT books missing from Sirach.  Daniel is also missing from a list of Israel's great men.
200 CHJ 2-364, GHH, ISBE 1-488     198-175 ISBE 4-529 190 B76 III-772, CBCNT 58, CHJ 2-81, 425, IDB 2-9, 4-859 185 B76 2-934
180 1&2BM 5, BBP 159, CHJ 2-225, 393, IDB 1-762, ISBE 1-595, Jud 4-821, 550, 824, MCAW, bk
180-75 AΨA 293     117 lvCrn
c.178 Heliodorus Stele Heliodorus Stele  inscribed in Greek.  Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria, 187-75 informs minister Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. photo ????


178 wikHlM
c.176 Aristobulus, Hellenistic Jewish writer and philosopher, flourishes. 176 atl2
170 IDB 1-220
c.175 PTOLEMAIS, under Seleucids from 198, comes under Rome until 153/2 179-70 rcHL
c.175 BETH-ZUR garrisoned by ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia until 164. 175 Jud 4-783
c.175 Zadokite high priest ONIAS-III 178-74, conflicts with bro Jason, who wants to Hellenize. 175 wikHD
c.175 Jewish high priest Onias-III visits Seleucus-IV in Syria to seek his support against his rival Jason. 175 atl2
c.175 HELIODOROS, minister of Seleucus-IV Philopator king of Syria, 187-75, visits Jerusalem to collect money, but is deterred from robbing temple treasury, and returns. 2Mac 3-7f
176 GHH 175 atl2
c.175 HYRCANUS, son of tax collector Joseph ben Tobiah, captured by his bros, fears being delivered to Antiochus-IV, suicides.  Antiochus-IV confiscates his wealth. Ant 12:4:11 175 je
c.174 JASON, bro of high priest Onias-III, spokesman for Hellenistic Jews, promises Antiochus-IV 240 silver talents for the high priesthood, and 150 talents more for permision to transform Jerusalem into a Greek city, name it Antioch, and build a gymnasium. 2Mac 4:7
175 Jud 9-1292
174 CAH 8-347, Sdl 5-293
c.174 King Areos(?) of Sparta sends a letter to Jewish high priest Onias-III offering to renew friendship. Ant 12:4:10
174 atl2
c.174 Antiochus-IV visits Jerusalem. 174 Jud 9-1292
c.174 Son of Simon-II, ONIAS-III ends.  Zadokite high priest from 198, deposed by Antiochus-IV, flees to EgyptA-IV appoints his Hellenist bro JASON high priest until 171. 175 1&2BM 235, CHJ 2-217, E2LM 106, GHH, Jud 9-1292, 12-1403, af, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP     175/4 CHJ 2
174 BNTH 50, 103, CAH 8, CBCNT 70, DHJ 481, HCC, IDB 2-804, VDJD 70, atl2, bivu     173 Jud 3-74
c.174 JASON, high priest 174-71, sends a donation to the quinquennial games at Tyre. 174 GHH
c.173 GYMNASIUM built in Jerusalem by high priest Jason.  The noblest of athletes are required to wear Greek hats. 1Mac 1:14, 2Mac 4:12, Ant 12:5:1
175 CHJ 2-219, MCAW, wikHD
173 Jud 3-74
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria, sent by Antiochus-IV, visits Joppa and Jerusalem, well received by Jason. 2Mac 4:21
c.173 APOLLONIUS proceeds to Egypt for coronation of Ptolemy-VI. 2Mac 4:21
c.173 APOLLONIUS, Syrian governor of Coele-Syria, returns to Syria.
c.172 Syrian forts and garrisons in Coele-Syria, as far south as Joppa are strengthened by Antiochus-IV, in anticipation of attack by Ptolemy-VI. 2Mac 4:21
172 CAH 8-503
c.171 JASON ben Simon, high priest 174-71, tries to Hellenize Jews. 1Mac 4:23
171 atl2
c.171 MENELAUS, neph of high priest Jason, sent with tribute money to Antiochus-IV in Syria to get decisions on stuff.  Menelaus outbids Jason by 300 talents silver for high priesthood. 2Mac. 4:23     175 IDB 3-199
172 or 1 1&2BM 249, CHJ 2-280
172 GHH     172 or 1 CHJ 2-280     171 IDB 3-49, 349, ISBE 1-145
c.171 Last Zadokite high priest from 174, JASON ben Simon deposed by Antiochus-IV, who appoints Benjamite MENELAUS to succeed until 163.  Jason resists at first, then flees to Ammon, dies 170. 2Mac 4:25     172 B76 1-995, CAH 8, E2LM 106, GHH, af, bivu, bk, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP     171 BNTH 3, 58, CBCNT 70, DHJ 482, IDB 2-804, Jud 16-916, atl2     170/69 CAH 8-503
c.171 MENELAUS, Benjamite high priest 171-63, and city official Lysimachus get caught embezzling.  Jews riot.  Lysimachus launches an armed attack. 2Mac 4:39
171 guess
c.171 LYSIMACHUS, co-priest from ?, killed in the treasury by the people in a riot at Jerusalem. 171 GHH, af 169 atl2
c.171 MENELAUS, Benjamite high priest 171-63, secretly takes some vessels from the Temple and gives them to Andronicus, viceroy of Syria.  Former high priest Onias-III gets proof of it and publishes it. 2Mac 4:32
winter 170/69 CAH 8-504, ISBE 1-145
c.171 ONIAS-III, former high priest 198-74, (and still legitimate h.p.) flees to Daphne (near Antioch). 171 ISBE 1-866
c.171 Son of Simon, ONIAS-III dies.  Former high priest 198-74, (and still legitimate h.p.) decoyed from the sanctuary at Daphne (near Antioch), in which he had sought refuge, and murdered by Andronicus, viceroy of Syria instigated by Menelaus. 2Mac 4:34, Ant 12:5:1
172 BAR 1982 VIII-5 p54 171 BNTH 58, GHH, Sdl 5-364, af     170 CHJ 2, atl2, hifi, rvlv, wikHP
169 CAH 8-503
c.170 SYRO / EGYPT WAR dormant from 195, resumes (6th) for control of Coele-Syria until 168. 171 DGRBM 1-198, IDB 3-199, LEWH 97, MCAW     170 B76 8-383, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH     169 CAH 8-305, CDCC 857
c.170 ZUGOT "Pairs" begin.  Pairs of sages resopnsible for maintaining the chain of oral law starting with Antigonus of Soco.
1st zug is Jose ben Joezer and Jose ben Johanan.
Ben Joezer is NASI (elected head of the sanhedrin)
Ben Johanan is AV BET DIN "father of the house of the judge".
170 Mish 1-506, Jud 16-233
c.170 Nasi JOSE Ben Joezer says laying hands on a sacrificed bull puts weight on it, thereby causing it to do work.  Therefore he forbids laying of hands on Sabbaths and holy days. Mish 2-2
c.170 Nasi JOSE Ben Joezer says the hopping locust is clean, and the liquid in the Temple slaughterhouse is clean.  Therefore they call him Jose the permitter. Mish Eduyoth 8:4
c.170  APOCALYPSE of WEEKS:   Book of Λ ENOCH V  ch 93:1-10, 91:11-17 divides world history into 10 unequal periods "weeks": 7 of past events, 3 of future events (including final judgment).  Climax is the 7th part of the 10th week where a new heaven appears, then there will be numberless weeks forever, and righteousness reigns. 200-150 wikBoE
just before 168 B76 III-905
163 IDB 3-104
c.170 ELULAEUS & LAENUS, regents for Ptolemy-VI 173-69, break Ptolemaic treaty with Seleucids by invading Coele-Syria. 170 B76 8-383     170/69 CAH 8-344
c.170 PHILO the Elder flourishes.  Writes  On Jerusalem  in Homeric Hexameters.  Only 24 lines survive.  The subject of the first fragment is Abraham, and probably the sacrifice of Isaac.  The 2nd speaks of Joseph.  The 3rd praises the springs and water pipes of Jerusalem. 170 ejwΦ 100 B76 10-313
c.170/69 Egyptian regents, Eulaeus and Lenaeus invade Coele- Syria. 170/69 BHS 2-135
c.169 JASON, former high priest 174-1, contender for high priesthood, flees to Ammon until 168. 2Mac 5:8
169 IDB 3-492
c.169 HARITHATH (Aretas)-I becomes king of Nabataea until 144.  This is the 1st known date in Nabataean history because Jason flees there. 169 IDB 3-492, Jud 12-740, MRDK 359, rcJdn
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches into Levant. 170 CHJ 2-282, Sdl 5-296
169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283, ISBE 1-145
c.169 Egyptian regents, Eulaeus and Lenaeus are routed by Antiochus-IV. 169 BHS 2-135
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches into Egypt until later 169. 170 CHJ 2-282, Sdl 5-296
169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-283, ISBE 1-145
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV withdraws from Egypt into Levant. 169 B76 8-383, CAH 8-284, 506, Jud 9-1391, Sdl 5-240
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV enters Jerusalem, walks into the Temple and demands to see the treasures, takes whatever he wants, including sacrificial instruments.  This is probably an administrative measure to recover arrears of tribute. 1Mac 1:20, Ant 12:5:4
170 DGRBM 2-878
169 1&2BM 24, CHJ 2-283, GHH, Jud 9-392, 1391, Sdl 5-297     168 atl2, bk
c.169 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 returns from Levant with 1,800 talents to Antioch. 169 BHS 2-141, CHJ 2-283
c.168 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Lebanon, under Seleucids from 198, independent until 105. 168 rcLeb
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 marches thru Levant for 2nd invasion of Egypt. 2Mac 5:1       168 1&2BM 26, B76 8-383, CAH 8-507, IDB 2-970, Jud 3-74, VDJD 70
c.168 At Rhinocolura, on the desert road between Palestine and Egypt, ANTIOCHUS-IV meets envoys of P-VI Philometor who thank him for his support in 169, and then remonstrate against his warlike demonstrations.  Antiochus-IV gives them an ultimatum demanding formal cession of Cyprus and Pelusium within a fixed time.  That time soon passes. 168 BHS 2-143
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 2nd invasion of Egypt. 2Mac 5:1       168 1&2BM 26, B76 1-994, 8-383, BHS 2-142, CAH 8-344, CHJ 2, DHJ 485, ISBE 1-145, Sdl 5-238, 297, atl2, lvPt6
c.168 JASON, former high priest 174-1, exiled in Ammon, hears false rumor that Antiochus-IV is killed in Egypt, leads 1,000 men to surprise attack Jerusalem.  High priest Menelaus flees to the citadel.  Jason slaughters opponents at Jerusalem, tries to recover high priesthood from Menelaus, conquers Jerusalem except for the citadel. 2Mac 5:5
169 B76 1-995, CHJ 2-293, GHH
168 BNTH 4, Jud 3-74, 9-1292, 1391, Sdl 5-298
c.168 JASON, former high priest 174-1, can't get control of government, returns to Ammon, then to Egypt, then to Sparta where he dies. 2Mac 5:5-9
169 CHJ 2
168 IDB 3-52, atl2
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 hears of fighting at Jerusalem, believes it is rebellion, hurries from Egypt to Judea. 2Mac 5:11
168 CAH 8-507, Jud 3-74
c.168 SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 170, ends. 168 CDCC 857, DGRBM 1-198, OHG, Sdl 5-238, frH
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 at Tyre, hears charges by Jews against high priest Menelaus, favors Jews.  Menelaus bribes Ptolemy son of Dorymenes to get Antiochus-IV to acquit him.  Antiochus-IV acquits Menelaus. 2Mac 4:43 168 B76 1-994
c.168 JERUSALEM, besieged by Antiochus-IV, betrayed by Antiochus' partisans inside, who open the gates.  Taken by storm.  Antiochus orders slaughter of all including women & kids.  3 days slaughter ensues.  40,000 killed, 40,000 enslaved.  Walls are destroyed until 152. 2Mac 5:11   169 CHJ 2
168 1&2BM 172, B76 11-225, DGRBM 1-198, E2LM 119, Jud 3-74, atl2     167 B76 1-995
Jerusalem will be held by force 3 years and 3 months. Wars, Preface-7
c.168 TEMPLE SACRIFICES stopped for 3 years and 6 months. Wars I-1-1
c.168 TEMPLE plundered of 1,800 talents worth of loot by Antiochus-IV aided by high priest Menelaus.  Antiochus reports that a statue of a bearded man, holding a book and seated on a donkey, is honored there.  This must be Moses.  This report evolves into a rumor that the Jews worshipped a donkey's head. 1Mac 1:21, 2Mac 5:15, 21, Ant 12:5:3
169 CHJ 2
168 CHJ 2-644, Dur 2-556, Sdl 5-298
no date: Jud 3-784
Story about the statue of a bearded man. Posidonius: Hist.
c.168 Governors placed over Judea by Antiochus-IVPhilip of Phrygia at Jerusalem, Andronicus at Mt. Gerizim. 2Mac 5:21
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, returns to Syria until 167. 2Mac 5:21
168 Sdl 5-298
c.168 APOLLONIUS, tax collector of Antiochus-IV, with 22,000 men, sent to Jerusalem to kill or enslave more Jews.  Reaches Jerusalem on pretense of peace, waits for Sabbath, attacks and kills many. 2Mac 5:24-5
168 GHH
167 Sdl 5-298
c.168 SAMARITANS send letter to Antiochus-IV, claim no relation to Jews or their god Yaweh.  Request that the temple at Mt. Gerizim be rededicated to Zeus Hellenius. Ant 12:5:6
168 guess
c.168 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 issues royal decree prohibiting practice of Jewish religion and demanding worship of Greek gods. 168 CAH 8-349     167 Jud 9-1391
c.168 Athenian senator sent by Antiochus-IV, to Judea to forbid practice of Judaism (including circumcision) and enforce Hellenization, to transform Jerusalem into a Greek city.  The Temple is dedicated to Zeus Olympicus.  The Mt. Gerizim temple is dedicated to Zeus Xenios (the Hospitable). 2Mac 6:1
168 B76 17-948, Jud 3-74
167 B76 11-225, IDB 4-568, Sdl 5-299
c.167 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64 concludes that the Jews' religion is what made them rebels, returns from Antioch to Jerusalem. Ant 12:5:4
167 CAH 8-505, CHJ 2-293
c.167 In 2Mac Jason, the deposed high priest, tries to regain his position in the confusion of the war.  Antiochus on his return from Egypt, drives Jason out of Jerusalem again.  However, 1Mac places Jason's failed coup later and says that Antiochus came to Jerusalem to collect 1800 talents.  This causes the people to revolt and a blood bath ensues. 2Mac 5
167 lvMM
c.167 CITADEL (called fortress AKRA) rebuilt just south of the Temple by Antiochus-IV.  It is occupied by Syrians, Hellenists, and other foreigners until 141. Ant 12:5:4
168 Jud 2-222
167 CAH 8-507-8
c.167 FORCED HELLENIZATION:  Temple is filled with revelry, debauchery, prostitution.  Unclean animals are sacrificed.  Jews are required to eat sacrificial offerings and participate in the feast of Dionysius wearing ivy.  Birthday of Antiochus-IV is celebrated monthly.  Death to recalcitrants. 2Mac 6
167 CHJ 2-517, Dur 2-582, Jud 3-74, 9-1391, Sdl 5-239, bk
c.167 Law of Moses declared null & void by Antiochus-IV. 167 VDJD 71
c.167 ELIEZER, a scribe, has pork forced into his mouth.  He spits it out and goes to be tortured.  Those in charge take him aside and offer to give him kosher meat to eat publicly, while pretending it's pork.  He refuses, and is therefore tortured and killed. 2Mac 6:18
167
Sdl 5-300
c.167 A mother and 7 sons are arrested and tortured to get them to eat pork.  The sons are mutilated one at a time by scalping, and amputation of tongue, hands, and feet.  They are then burnt alive. 2Mac 7
167 guess
c.167 In spring 167 Seleucid soldiers under Apollonius, are unexpectedly garrisoned at Jerusalem.  Shortly afterwards 1Mac says Antiochus-IV issues a decree that causes a revolt by the people.  Conversely, 2Mac 6 describes the decree as being issued in response to the revolt.
Reconciliation?:  Revolt was already smoldering, in 2Mac, and when Antiochus issues the decree, Judea explodes, as reported in 1Mac.  This reconstruction is plausible, but it contradicts both sources.
167
VDJD 71, atl2, lvMM
c.167 FESTIVAL of LIGHTS:  Pagan holiday celebrating rebirth of the sun.  Jewish sacrifices are ceased. 2Mac 7
167 CAH 8-508
c.167 DAMASCUS, under Seleucids from 198, comes under Iturea until 110. 167 rcS
c.167 GAZARA (Gezer), under Seleucids from 198, comes under Judea until 160. 167 rcCan
c.167 GATH, under Seleucids from 198 becomes part of the coastal Pentapolis until 67. 167 rcHL
c.167 HEBRON, under Edomites from 587, comes under Judea until 63. 167 rcCan
c.167 MODIN Judah:  Syrian officer Apelles urge priest MATTATHIAS ben Jonah to sacrifice on a pagan altar.  Matt refuses.  A Jew goes to comply.  Matt kills him, kills the Syrians, destroys the altar.  He and his sons, John, Simon, Judas, Jonathan, and Eleazar ride thru Modin inviting the zealous to follow them to exile in the mountains.  "Whoever is zealous for Torah, and maintains the covenant, let him come forth after me!" 1Mac 2:1, 27, Ant 12:6:1-2, Wars 1:1:2
167 CHJ 2, DHJ 491, DGRBM 2-878, GHH, IDB 1-150, Jud 11-1127, MCAW, TTPC, wikJM
166 ISBE 2-622
167 Dec December 167 the daily sacrifices in the Temple are suspended.  Ten days later the first heathen sacrifice took place there.  A pig is slaughtered on the altar.  At the same time the Temple is dedicated to Zeus Olympius, and a cult statue of the god is placed in the Temple together with statues of the king, whose birthday is to be celebrated by monthly sacrifices.
168 GHH
167 CHJ 2-286, E2LM 93, ISBE 1-146
167 Dec ABOMINATION of DESOLATION:  ANTIOCHUS-IV kills pigs on the altar, erects something (image of Zeus Olympios?) on the altar.  This is explained to the Jews as the BAAL SHAMIN "Lord of Heaven". 1Mac 1:54, 2Mac 7
168 B76 IX-881, DHJ 487, HCC     167 1&2BM 31, BNTH 4, CAH 8-508, CHJ 2-514, DBANE 264, Jud 2-98, Sdl 5-241, VDJD 71, bivu
Antiochus-IV kills a pig on the altar and soils the Torah scrolls with its grease. Posidonius of Apamea fragment 109
c.167/6 Royal officials in Samaria apply the new regulations to the Samaritans of Shechem, regarding them as Jews.  The Samaritans respond by sending a petition to the king, pointing out that the custom of observing the Sabbath and the construction of their anonymous temple on Mount Gerizim were propitiatory measures introduced by their forefathers after a severe drought. 167/6 CHJ 2-287
c.167/6 Syrian garrison at Jerusalem learns of incident at Modin, sends a detatchment which catches about 1,000 on a Sabbath.  They refuse to surrender or fight.  Syrians wipe them out. 1Mac 2:31, Ant 12:6:2
167 GHH
c.167/6 MATTATHIAS ben Jonah learns of the Sabbath massacre, decides to fight on the Sabbath. 1Mac 2:39, Ant 12:6:2
167 GHH     166 atl2
c.166 A band of HASIDIM joins Mattathias, and remain with Maccabees until 163. 1Mac 2:42
167 GHH
c.166 Samaritans disown kinship with Jews. 166 atl2
c.166 Apollonius and Seron, during summer 166 ended with Jewish victories and undoubtedly strengthened the influence of the insurgents in Judea. 166 CHJ 2-287
c.166 According to 1Mac, Apollonius tries to attack Judas with troops from the city of Samaria but is defeated.  2Mac says Judas was in Jerusalem when Apollonius marched into the city with his garrison of soldiers from Mysia and that he fled. 2Mac ??
166 lvMM
c.166 Mattathias and his rebels begin raiding Hellenistic villages, kill Hellenizers, circumcise Jewish boys. 1Mac 2:44
166 atl2
c.166 Syrian commander APOLLONIUS dies.  Attacks and is defeated and killed by JUDAS ben Mattathias, who takes Apollonius' sword and uses it the rest of his life. 1Mac 3:10, Ant 12:7:1
167/6 Sdl 5-306     166 B76 11-225 Dur 2-584, GHH     165 atl2
c.166 MATTATHIAS ben Jonah dies of illness.  Rebel leader from 167.  He is buried at Modin.  3rd son JUDAS assumes leadership until 160. 1Mac 2:70, Ant 12:6:4, Wars 1:1:2
168/7 IDB 3-301     167 rcHL     167/6 Sdl 5-304     166 1&2BM 42, B76 VI-695, 11-225, 17-948, CHJ 2, GHH, ISBE 2-622, MCAW, MRDK 354, TTPC, ds, hifi, wikJM, wikMtt     165 atl2
c.166 SERON, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria from ?, invades Judea, defeated by JUDAS at Beth Horon, and killed.  Remnant of his army flees to Philistia.  Seron is succeeded by PTOLEMY son of Dorymenes until 164. 1Mac 3:13,
Ant 12:7:1
166 1&2BM 48, GHH, Sdl 5-306 165 atl2
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is an Upper and a Lower Beth Horon 3km apart, midway between Emmaus and Bethel.  Unless Upper or Lower is specified, there is no way to know which is referred to.
c.166 JUDEA, under Seleucids from 198 goes virtually independent, but is not granted independence until 142. 167 rcHL 166 bivu
c.166 According to 1Mac Judas first engages with Seron and is defeated at Beth-Horon, while 2Mac says nothing about this battle but mentions a man called Geron who supervises the executing of the decree. 2Mac ??
166 lvMM
c.166 PHILIP of Phrygia, Syrian governor of Jerusalem 168-, writes to Ptolemy son of Dorymenes, strategos of Coele-Syria asking for help. 2Mac 8:8
c.165 IDUMEA, under Seleucids from 200 goes independent until 109. 165 hifi 160 rcHL
c.165  Book of DANIEL  written in Judea.  Ch 1 and 8-12 in Hebrew, ch 2-7 in Aramaic.  Ch 1-6 show a progression from Babylonian to Median times, which begins again (Babylonian to Persian) in ch 7-12.  The historical setting is clear from ch 11, where the prophecy is accurate down to Antiochus-IV, oppressor of the Jews, but not accurate in its prediction of his death 164.  There is no evidence of time lapse between ch 10-12 and ch 8-9.  Ch 7 may have been written a few months earlier.  12:1-2 contains the only O.T. reference to resurrection. 170 IDB 3-963
168 AΨA 629, IDB 4-39
168/7 ISBE 1-487 167-64 B76 2-929, wikBD     166 CAH 8-510, Dur 2-556
166/5 IDB 1-767
165 DHJ 530, IDB 3-89, MCAW, lvCrn
164 IDB 1-509, bk
160 AΨA 656
c.165 LYSIAS, viceroy of west for Antiochus-IV, sends generals Nicanor and Gorgias with 40,000 inf and 7,000 cav into Coele-Syria to help strategos Ptolemy son of Dorymenes. 1Mac 3:38, 2Mac 8:9, Ant 12:7:3
166 IDB 3-546
c.165 PTOLEMY, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria 166-, sends generals Nicanor and Gorgias with 40,000 inf and 7,000 cav to destroy Judea and take slaves. 1Mac 3:38, 2Mac 8:8
166/5 DHJ 493
165 CAH 8-515, Jud 7-809
c.165 JUDAS gathers army at Mizpah, fasts, prays, sackcloth & ashes, etc., organizes army, sends home newly weds, vineyard planters, and frightened people, moves south of Emmaus. Syrian generals NICANOR & GORGIAS camp near Emmaus, promise local merchants 90 slaves for 1 talent.  Idumeans and Philistines join Syrians at Emmaus. 1Mac 3:40-46
2Mac 8:10-12
165 Sdl 5-307, atl2
battles Judas defeats 2 Seleucid armies at Emmaus in summer 165, as reported in 1 & 2Mac.  But the books don't agree on the sequel.  1Mac says how, at Beth Zur, the insurgents defeated another army under Lysias.  Judas then advanced on Jerusalem and in December 164 purified the temple.
The sequence of events according to 1Mac is:  victory at Emmaus, defeat of Lysias, purification of the temple and death of Antiochus-IV, a bragging story according to which the Jews liberated themselves.
In 2Mac, first is the victory at Emmaus, then death of Antiochus-IV, then purification of the temple.  Lysias then undertook his military campaign and was defeated at Beth Zur, and finally, we have a letter from the new king, Antiochus-V Eupator, in which he recognises the Jewish rites of worship at the request of Menelaus.
The contraction can be explained.  The letter was dated 11 April 164, which means that it was written half a year before the death of Antiochus-IV.  The author of 2Mac mixed up the namesakes of the king.  This proves that the document was not an invention and that the persecutory decree was revoked before Judas re-consecrated the temple.
165 IDB 1-150, lvMM no date: 1&2BM 286
c.165 Syrian general GORGIAS near Emmaus, learns of Jews camped south of Emmaus, takes 5,000 inf and 1,000 cav, to surprise them by night.  JUDAS learns of it, breaks camp, and circles to attack Emmaus.  Gorgias finds the empty camp, thinks they fled to the mountains, goes to the mountains. 1Mac 4:1-5, Ant 12:7:3-4
An angel revealed Gorgias' plans to Judas. 1 Enoch 90:14
c.165 battlesJUDAS, with 3,000 men, routs Nicanor near Emmaus, pursues them to Gazara, Jabneh, and Ashdod.  He cautions his men not to plunder the camp until Gorgias is defeated.  Gorgias sees smoke from the Emmaus camp, and Judas ready to attack.  Gorgias flees to Philistine land.  Judas plunders his camp, robs slave buyers, gets enough money to equip an army. 1Mac 4:6, 19, 23, 2Mac 8:25, Ant 12:7:4
165 CHJ 2-288, DGRBM 2-1177, GHH, ISBE 2-459, Jud 4-763 164 Jud 11-658
c.165 ASHDOD (Azotus), under Seleucids from 198. taken by JOHN Maccabee, remains under Judean control until 67. 165 Jud 3-696 100 rcHL
c.165 Bacchides and Ammonite Timothy invade Judea, but are defeated with a loss of 20,000. 165 GHH
c.165 JUDAS and JONATHAN leave Joseph and Azariah in charge of the camp with instructions not to attack until they return.  They go to help rebels in Gilead and Galilee. 165 Jud 10-224
c.165 Beth Zur CITADEL taken by Judas, and rebuilt until 160. 1Mac 4:34     165 CHJ 2-8, GHH, Jud 4-783
c.165/4 LYSIAS, viceroy of Syria for Antiochus-IV, with general Gorgias, 60,000 inf and 5,000 cav invades Judea, camps at Beth Zur.  Judas with 10,000 defeats him, killing 5,000. 1Mac 4:29-35, Ant 12:7:5
165 1&2BM 49, BHS 2-179, DGRBM 2-864, IDB 1-23, 404
165/4 CHJ 2-288
164 CAH 8-515, DGRBM 2-879, Jud 11-659, Sdl 5-308, wikLSC
Chronology of the period becomes easier if we discard this expedition as a fiction created to balance the Jewish defeat at Beth Zur in 163. CHJ 2-288
c.164 Lysias negotiates with Jews LETTER  from LYSIAS at Beth Zur to the council of elders and the rest of the Jews, offers amnesty and cessation of persecution if they would lay down their arms within 15 days.  The letter ignores Judas and ambassadors John and Absalom and mentions Menelaus as the Jew spokesman.  Lysias returns to Antioch. 1Mac 4:35, 2Mac 11:16-33 165/4
1&2BM 61
164 CHJ 2-301
c.164 In spring 164, unfortunately too late, Antiochus-IV tries to redeem his errors by rescinding the decree concerning the persecution of Judaism and proclaiming amnesty for the rebels.  Anyone who returns before Mar. 29, 164 is forgiven. 164 CHJ 2-291, E2LM 117
c.164 200 Jews at JOPPA are induced to board ships in the harbor, and then drowned. 164 IDB 2-971 163 GHH, ISBE 2-1119
c.164 PTOLEMY son of Dorymenes, Syrian strategos of Coele-Syria from 166, relieved by viceroy LYSIAS, who appoints PTOLEMY MACRON (who is friendly to Jews) until ?. 2Mac 10:12
164 CAH 8-516
c.164 Ammonites, Idumeans and others ally against Judea. 164 GHH
c.164 Judas carries out punitive expeditions against Idumea. 164 CHJ 2-290 163 GHH
c.164 GORGIAS, governor of Idumea, flees to Mareshah for refuge. 2Mac 12:35
164 IDB 3-264
c.164 After negotiations between Lysias and Judas, Roman legates, Q. Memmius and T. Manius, enroute to Antioch, write to Jews (now negotiating with Lysias), and promise their advice. 2Mac 11:34
165 IDB 3-259
164 CAH 8-354, atl2
c.164 After negotiations between Lysias and Judas, Antiochus-IV writes to Jews.  Letter says Jews may have their own laws and eat their own food.  The Maccabees are not mentioned. 2Mac 11:27-32
164 E2LM 117, Sdl 5-310, atl2
c.164 JERUSALEM, under Seleucids from 198, recovered by JUDAS Maccabee, but Syrian garrison and high priest Menelaus and Hellenistic Jews retreat to the citadel and hold out, garrison until 145, Hellenizers until 141.  Judas besieges the citadel. 1Mac 4:36
165 CAH 8-349, TTPC     164 B76 11-225, 17-948, MCAW, wikHD     163 GHH
Jerusalem is held by Antiochus-IV 3 years and 3 months. Wars, Preface-7
c.164 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, decides to purge the Jerusalem Temple, suddenly advances on Jerusalem (now without walls), finds the Temple gates burnt and weeds growing in the court, priest's chambers demolished. 1Mac 4:36
165 GHH 164 E2LM 119, wikHD
c.164 ALTAR, defiled in 167, is dismantled by JUDAS Maccabee.  The stones are stored on the Temple mount awaiting a prophet to tell the Jews what to do with them. 1Mac 4:43
c.164 NEW ALTAR, of uncut stones, is built by JUDAS Maccabee, who also makes new Temple furnishings and a new curtain. 1Mac 4:47
 DANIEL  12:11:  From the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away and the abomination that makes desolate set up [167] shall be 1,290 days.  [removal of abomination 164]  12:12:  Blessed is he that waits and comes to the 1,335 days. [dedication]
164
Dec. 14
DEDICATION (Hanukkah) of the HOUSE (Ha Bayit) by Judas Maccabee.  An 8 day celebration.  TEMPLE front is decorated with gold crowns and shields.  Greek Jews continue to use the name "Feast of Lights".  Daily sacrifices are resumed. Chislev 25 1Mac 4:52, Ant 12:7:7
165 DHJ 494, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-151, 812, 2-523, TTPC
164 1&2BM 63, B76 17-948, BHS 2-181, CAH 8-515, CHJ 2-290, 398, ISBE 2-622, 1022, Jud 9-1392, MCAW, Sdl 5-311, atl2, bivu, bk, wikJM
From Abomination to Dedication is three and a half years. Ant 12:7:6     atl2
Josephus will say Daniel predicted this 408 years previously. Ant 12:7:6
It will later be said that the Maccabees found only enough oil to keep a lamp burning 1 day, but it lasted 8 days.
2Mac 9, 10:23 says Antiochus-IV died in the months before the temple cleansing.  1Mac says he died after it. 1&2BM 64
c.164 Mt. ZION fortified with high walls and towers. 1Mac 4:60
c.164 BETH ZUR fortified by Judas as a defense against Idumea.  Remains under Jews until 163. 1Mac 4:61, Ant 12:7:7
164 1&2BM 63, IDB 1-404
c.164/3 LYSIAS, viceroy of Syria and young ANTIOCHUS-V, invade Coele-Syria, go around Judea to Idumea, then invade Judea from the south, and go to Beth Zur. 164 CAH 8-350, IDB 3-193
So says Josephus, but it screws up the chronology. Ant 12:9:4 Wars 1:1:5
c.164 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, attacks and defeats Idumeans at Akrabatta in western Idumea. 1Mac 5:3, Ant 12:8:1
164 IDB 2-26
163 1&2BM 68
c.164 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, crosses into Ammon, has many battles with Timothy, siezes JAZER and villages, takes women & kids, burns cities, returns to Judea. 1Mac 5:6-8, Ant 12:8:1
164 IDB 4-650, Jud 4-292
163 1&2BM 68
c.164  Book of Dream Visions, 4th part of 1 Λ Enoch V , written.  A history of the Jews from beginning of Creation.  Israelites are symbolized by bulls, and then, from Jacob onwards, by sheep, lambs and rams.  Israel's enemies are represented by elephants, camels, donkeys etc., even birds of prey.  Thus the book is sometimes known as the 'Vision of Animals'.  From I Enoch 90:6 onwards the author deals with the origin of the Hasidean party (90:6-7); the murder of High Priest Onias-III (90:8); and the exploits of the Maccabees (90:9).  90:13-15 says the battle of Beth Zur was won by Judas, thanks to intervention of a heavenly horseman. 165-60 lvCrn 164 CHJ 2-430

Levant 163-131
V