Levant
c.612 Prophet NAHUM rejoices at fall of Nineveh. 612 MCAW 75, WBH 20
c.612 HAMATH, under Assyria from 720, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcS
c.612 DOR, under Assyria from 724, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcHL
c.612 ACCO, under Assyria from 700, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcHL
c.612 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley under Assyria from 722, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcCan
c.612 SAMARIA, under Assyria from 722, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcHL
c.612 Philistine cities ASHDOD, ASKALON, EKRON, and GAZA, under Assyria from 740, come under Babylon, Ekron until 604, the rest until 539. 612 rcHL
c.612 GAZA, under Assyria from 740, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 rcHL
c.612 MOAB, under Assyria from 710, independent until 582. 612 guess
c.612 AMMON, under Assyria from 715, independent until 585. 612 guess
c.612 EDOM, under Assyria from 724, comes under Babylon until 539. 612 hifiEd, rcHL
c.609 NECO-II, king of 26th Saite dyn 610-595, leads full army into Levant to grab former Assyrian possessions and relieve his army in Carchemish.  Puts down an uprising in Gaza. 609 GHH, RAI2 314, RAI3 377, WPOT 96, mxfld     609/8 IDB 3-795
608 MCAW 74
no date: 1Esdras 1:25, Sag1 141
c.609 SIDON taken by NECO-II, comes under Egypt until 598. 609 IDB 4-344
c.609 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Tyre from 1000, comes under Egypt until 605. 609 rcLeb
c.609 DAMASCUS, under Assyria from 732, independent until 605. 609 rcS
c.609 HALAP, under Assyria from 738, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
c.609 JOPPA, under Assyria from 701, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcHL
c.609 Son of Amon, JOSIAH dies.  King of Judah from 640, rushes to Megiddo to prevent Neco-II from helping Assyrians at CarchemishNeco tells him to go home.  Refuses.  JOSIAH is defeated and killed.  Son (age 23) JEHOAHAZ succeeds for 3 to 6 months. 610 GHH     609 B76 V-614, CAH 3.2, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-996, Jud 10-288, LEWH 45, MNHK, MRDK, RAI2 314, RAI3 377, Sdl 4-321, SOTS 219, WBH 20, bihi, biti, bivu, bk, ds, frN, hifiI, htc, lara, rcHL
608 DHJ 276, MCAW 75, RAI2, Sag, Sdl 3-369, WPOT 166, trubi     606 btl     525 lgbt
CONFUSION ALERT!  Another Jehoahaz was king of Israel 814-798.
c.609 Son of Josiah, JEHOAHAZ ends.  King of Judah 609, deposed and deported to Egypt by Neco-II, pharaoh 610-595, who enthrones his bro Eliakim (age 23).  ELIAKIM changes his name to JEHOIAKIM, and succeeds until 598.  Judah is under Egypt until 605. 2K 23:34       609 B76 10-134, CAH 3.2, CBCOT, GHH, HCC, LEWH 45, MNHK, MRDK, Sdl 4-347, WBH 36, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, htc, lara     608 IDB 2-810, hifiI, trubi
607 DHJ 289, Sag     606 btl
525 lgbt
c.609 GALILEE, under Judah from 615, comes under Babylon until 539.  Remains out of Jewish control until 80. 609 rcHL
c.609 HILKIAH ben SHALLUM , High Priest of Jerusalem from 625, ends.  Son AZARIAH-V succeeds until 600. 609 guess
c.608 JEREMIAH, stands at a temple gate, tells people to obey the law and prophets or the temple will be destroyed.  Priests and people call for his death.  Princes of Judah come and all reconsider.  They decide Jeremiah is right. Jer 26:1
609
Sdl 4-351
c.608 JEREMIAH, sends yokes to ambassadors of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, Sidon with message to submit to Nebuchadrezzar or be destroyed.  Says Neb's dynasty will rule until the time of his grandson. Jer 27:1
c.607 Judah is vexed by Babylonians, Syrians, Ammonites, and Moabites. 2K 24:2
607 CBCOT
c.605 NECO-II of Egypt (and Ionian mercenaries) defeated at CARCHEMISHA remnant of Egyptians flees to Hamath, and is wiped out.  NEBUCHADREZZAR, son of Nabopolassar king of Babylon chases Egyptians south as far as Pelusium in the east Nile DeltaBabylon gains all lands north of it. 605 B76 6-480, 10-134, 17-946, FLAP 185, GHH, HCC, IDB 3-530, MCAW 74, MNHK 183, RAI2 315, RAI3 378, Sag1 141, SOTS 167, TTPC, WBH 20, WPOT 166
c.605 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Egypt from 609, comes under Babylon until 539. 605 rcLeb
c.605 ABILA northwest of Damascus, under Assyrians from 732, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
c.605 DAMASCUS, independent from 609, taken by Nebuchadrezzar, under Babylon until 539. 609 rcS
604 B76 5-447
c.605 Former Assyrian vassals and allies in Levant accept Nebuchadrezzar as their new overlord, under Babylon until 541.  ASKALON and JUDAH hold out, hoping for help from Egypt. 605 B76 17-946 604 rcHL
604-2 MCAW 74
c.605 Prophet HABAKKUK, active from 619, ends. 605 ds
c.605 JEREMIAH gets word from Yahweh.  Judah was warned and didn't repent.  Therefore Nebuchadrezzar will come.  70 years captivity to follow. Jehoiakim yr 4 Jer 25:1
c.605 NEBUCHADREZZAR, son of Nabopolassar king of Babylon halts at border of Egypt, turns to deal with Egyptian vassal JEHOIAKIM king of Judah, conquers Jerusalem, robs temple. 2Ch 36:6-7
606 GHH
605 CBCOT
604 B76 12-925
c.605 MOAB subjugated by NEBUCHADREZZAR until 581. 605 CBCOT
c.605 JEHOIAKIM, king of Judah 609-598, Egyptian vassal from 609, becomes vassal of Nebuchadrezzar until 602. 605 SOTS 346 604 rcHL
c.605 1st DEPORTATION V of Jews to Babylon: includes 7,000 craftsmen and smiths, 1,000 potential soldiers, and supposedly Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah, and DANIEL. 2K 24:14       606 GHH
605 MNHK 185, SOTS 346, ds, sl
Jehoiakim yr 3 Dan 1:1
c.605 Prophet JEREMIAH, ordered by Yahweh, dictates  scroll  to his secretary Baruch.  Summarizes all prophesies against Judah from the days of Josiah.  Tells Baruch to read it in temple court on next fast day. Jehoiakim yr 4 Jer 36:1
605
Sdl 4-354, 379
c.604 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, returns to Levant to collect tribute and deal with recalcitrants. 604 DOTT 79, MNHK 186, RAI3 379, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 224, 234
c.604 JEHOIAKIM, king of Judah 609-598, against advice of Jeremiah, depends on help from Egypt. 604 MCAW 74
c.604 BARUCH, secretary of Jeremiah, reads  scroll  in temple on a fast day, when people had gathered from cities of Judah.  Princes take him aside and tell him to tell Jeremiah to hide, while they show the scroll to Jehoiakim.  Jehoiakim burns Jeremiah's scroll, orders arrest of Jeremiah and Baruch. Jer 36:9-23
c.604 ASKALON taken and destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar, its king deported to Babylon. 604 B76 11-988, DOTT 79, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-348, SOTS 225, WPOT 67
c.604 EKRON, under Nebuchadrezzar from 612, destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar. 604 IDB 2-26
c.604 EDOM, under Babylon 612-539, submits to Nebuchadrezzar without a fight. 604 IDB 2-26
c.604/3 Prophet JEREMIAH, ordered by Yahweh, writes another  scroll  like the 605 scroll, adds that Jehoiakim will be killed and remain unburied.  His son Jeconiah will not rule. Jer 36:27
no date: Sdl 4-380
c.603 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, in Levant from 604, returns to Babylon. 603 SOTS 234
c.602 JEHOIAKIM, king of Judah 609-598, vassal of Nebuchadrezzar, withholds tribute. 603 GHH     602 SOTS 246, ds
601 B76 10-135
3 yrs after becoming vassal: 2K 24:1
c.601 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, goes from "Hatti" land (Anatolia or Syria) to Levant.  Aids local governors in collecting tribute. 601 Sdl 4-349, SOTS 234
c.601 EDOM under Babylon 612-539, reconquered by Nebuchadrezzar-II. 601 CBCOT
c.601 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, leads army to Egypt.  Severely defeated at border by NECO-II. 601 B76 11-988, DOTT 80, IDB 3-530, MCAW 74, MNHK 186, RAI2 316, RAI3 379, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 225, 234     601/0 B76 12-925
c.600 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, returns from Levant to Babylonia. 600 MCAW 74, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.600 SOAP made in Phoenicia from goat fat and wood ashes high in potassium carbonate.  Traded for goods from Gaul.   (See Ebers 1550, Celts 750, Babylonia 550) 600 B76 16-915, EOET 217
c.600 MIDDLE IRON Age in Palestine ends.  Began 900.
LATE IRON AGE begins until 300.
600 IDB 1-207
c.600 Λ ARAMAIC V LANGUAGE spoken in Palestine, evidenced by a letter found at Sakkara, Egypt probably sent from Philistia. 600
WPOT 148
c.600  Book of KINGS , 1st edition published.  It denounces pre-Deuteronomic Israel for defection from law of Moses. 600
IDB 1-504
c.600  Book of JOB  A unified outline is completed by an Edomite poet. 600
Sdl 5-213
Origin of  Book of Job  is the most uncertain in the O.T. Cary
c.600 AZARIAH-V ben Hilkiah, High Priest from 609, ends.  Son SERIAH succeeds until 586. 600 rcHL
c.598 JEHOIAKIM, king of Judah 609-598/7, ignores warnings of Jeremiah, allies with Neco-II, rebels against Nebuchadrezzar. 598 MCAW 78, SOTS 334
598/7 RAI3 379
c.598 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, moves from northwest Arabia into Levant until 596. 599 RAI2 316     598 B76 11-988, 12-925, IDB 3-530, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.598 SIDON, under Egypt from 609, comes under Babylon until 539. 593 IDB 4-344 573 rcLeb
c.598 JEHOIAKIM king of Judah 609-598/7, learns from elders that URIAH ben Shemaiah has prophesied against Judah like Jeremiah did, seeks Uriah to kill him.  Uriah flees to Egypt.  Jehoiakim extradites Uriah and kills him. Jer 26:20
c.598  Book of HABAKKUK  A dialog between the prophet requesting help against the Babylonians, and Yahweh responding.   Dead Sea Scrolls  omit ch 3, suggesting that only ch 1 & 2 are authentic. 598
IDB 2-503
598 late At approach of Babylonians, the Rechabites flee Jerusalem. late 598 Sdl 4-357
c.598 JEHOIAKIM, king of Judah from 609, either dies or abdicates to his son JEHOIACHIN (age 8 or 18), or makes him co-king until 597. 2K 24:6     608 IDB 2-810     607 Sag
598 B76 10-134, CAH 3.2, LEWH 46, MCAW 78, MNHK, Sdl 4-347, SOTS 235, WBH 36, ds, frN, lara, rcHL     597 CBCOT, HCC, hifiI, htc, trubi     age 8 2Ch 36:9     age 18 1Esd 1:43
c.597 LACHISH burnt by Nebuchadrezzar. 598 FLAP 161, MCAW 78
597 Jan. JERUSALEM besieged by Nebuchadrezzar until March. 599 GHH     597 DOTT 80, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, Sag1 142, SOTS 235, ds     596 BHoE 596
597 Jan. MOAB and AMMON join Nebuchadrezzar against Judah. 2K 24:2
597 WPOT 241
597
Mar. 16
JERUSALEM besieged by Nebuchadrezzar from Jan., falls.  Temple robbed. 598 FLAP 160, IDB 2-203     597 B76 7-126, 10-135, 11-988, 12-925, 17-946, IDB 1-764, 3-530, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, RAH 110, RAI2 316, RAI3 379, Sdl 4-350, SOTS 235, TTPC, WBH 20, WPOT 188, bk, sl
c.597 Λ 2nd DEPORTATION V of 10,800 JEWS including 3,023 adult males Babylon.  Includes Ezekiel, officers, craftsmen, and smiths, temple furnishings and vessels. Jehoiakim yr 11: 2K 23:36, 2Ch 36:5
Neb-II yr 7 Jer 52:28
598 IDB 2-186, 203     597 B76 7-127, 11-988, IDB 4-948, Sdl 4-350, 5-4, SOTS 344, WBH 20, ds, hifiI
c.597 JEHOIAKIM ben Josiah, king of Judah 609-598/7, either deported to Babylon (2Ch 36:6, 1Esdras 1:40), or dies in Judah (2K 24:6). 598 B76 V-537, 2-916, CAH 3.2, IDB 2-813, LEWH 46, MCAW 78, MNHK, SOTS 235, 322, btl, bivu, frN, lara
597 CBCOT, HCC, IDB 1-764, MRDK, Sag, WBH 37, bihi, biti, rcHL     596 kical
c.597 JEHOIACHIN ben Jehoiakim, co?-king of Judah from 598, deported to Babylon by Nebuchadrezzar-II, who installs his uncle, MATTANIAH (age 21), who changes his name to ZEDEKIAH, and succeeds until 586. 2K 24:15     599 GHH     598 CAH 3.2, FLAP 185, RAI3, frN, lara     597 B76 V-537, 10-135, 12-925, CBCOT, HCC, IDB 2-813, 4-948, LEWH 46, MNHK, MRDK, Sag, Sdl 4-375, SOTS 226, 322, bihi, biti, bivu, bk, ds, hifiI, htc, trubi     596 kical     513 lgbt
c.597 Prophet JEREMIAH sees vision of good and bad baskets of figs: good ones deported to Babylon, bad ones left behind in Judah. Jer 24
597 MCAW 79
c.596 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, finished with Judah, returns to Syria. 596 B76 11-988, SOTS 235
c.594 Prophet JEREMIAH writes letter to captives in Babylon:  Build houses, get comfortable.  You're going to be there 70 years.  Don't listen to prophets who say otherwise. Jer 29
c.594 ZEDEKIAH king of Judah 597-86, sends embassy to captives in Babylon, includes Jeremiah's letter. Jer 29:3
594 SOTS 344-47
c.594 TYRE, SIDON, AMMON, MOAB, EDOM all discuss a united rebellion against Nebuchadrezzar, send embassies to Judah asking Zedekiah to join them. Jer 27         595/4 Sdl 4-358 594 B76 10-135, WPOT 241 593 IDB 1-112
c.594 Prophet JEREMIAH tells Zedekiah that Jerusalem will fall to Neb-II and be burnt.  Zedekiah will see Neb-II, be taken to Babylon, and die in peace. Jer 34:1-6
c.593 False prophet HANANIAH in Jerusalem, predicts return of captives and temple vessels from Babylon.  Removes yoke from Jeremiah and breaks it.  Predicts break of Babylonian power in 2 years, then dies, as predicted by Jeremiah. Jer 28:1-17
594-3
IDB 4-948
c.591 PSAMTIK-II king of Egypt 595-89, king of 26th Saite dyn, expedition into Palestine, returns same year. yr 4 Shaw 372
c.591 ITHBAAL-III ends.  King of Tyre on island from ?.  ESHBAAL-III succeeds until 573. 591 adeT, wikT 591/0 rcLeb
c.588 APRIES (Hophra) king of Egypt 589-70, sends naval expedition to Phoenicia, subjugates Phoenicia, takes Sidon until 586. 588 MCAW 89
no date: Sag1 142
c.588 ZEDEKIAH king of Judah 597-86, rebels against Nebuchadrezzar. 2K 24:20, 2Ch 36:13
593 GHH     589 B76 11-988
588 MCAW 82, SOTS 227, ds
c.588 Prophet JEREMIAH leaves Jerusalem to go to Benjamin.  Arrested on charge of intent to collaborate with Babylonians.  Brought before princes of Judah.  Imprisoned at house of Jonathan the scribe. Jer 37:11-15
c.588 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, marches from Syria to Levant.  Receives submission from all forts except Lachish. 587
Sdl 4-366
c.588  LACHISH LETTERS  written in carbon ink in Ancient Hebrew on clay ostraca during siege by Nebuchadrezzar, contain 100 readable lines.  They are written to Joash, possibly the commanding officer at Lachish, from Hoshaiah, a military officer in a city close to Lachish (possibly Mareshah).  Hoshaiah defends himself to Joash regarding a letter he either was or was not supposed to have read.  The letters also contain reports and requests from Hoshaiah to his superior. 588
BBP 28
588-6 wikLL
c.588 LACHISH burnt by Nebuchadrezzar, deserted until 450. 588 FLAP 161 586 IDB 3-54
c.588 JERUSALEM besieged by Nebuchadrezzar. Zed yr 9 2K 25:1, Jer 39:1       590 GHH
589 IDB 4-949     588 FLAP 162, MNHK 190, SOTS 235, 344, btl, ds, htc, trubi
587 MCAW 82, Sdl 4-366
c.588 ZEDEKIAH king of Judah 597-86, takes Jeremiah from dungeon at house of Jonathan.  Asks for word from Yahweh.  Jeremiah gives same reply as before, and asks not to be sent back to house of Jonathan.  Reimprisoned in court and given daily bread ration. Jer
37:17-21
c.587 Mainland TYRE besieged by NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562.  Tyre gets supplies by sea from Egypt, and holds out until 573. 587 LEWH 48
585 GHH
c.587 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Judah from 922, comes under Babylon until 539. 587 rcCan
c.587 HEBRON, under Judah from 922, comes under Edomites (with some Jewish settlement) until 167. 587 rcCan 587/6 hifiEd
c.587 JEREMIAH imprisoned in king's house. Zed yr 10 Jer 32:1
587 MNHK 190
c.587 Princes of Judah go to Zedekiah, ask permission to kill Jeremiah because he weakens the soldiers.  Zedekiah gives permission.  Princes throw Jeremiah in dungeon of Malchijah. Jer 38:4-6
582 bihi
c.587 JERUSALEM under siege by Nebuchadrezzar:  Wall is breached. 587 IDB 4-949
586 Sdl 4-368, trubi
c.587 DEBIR burnt by Babylonians.  Never rebuilt. 587 IDB 1-808
c.587 HEBRON destroyed by Babylonians. 587 IDB 2-576
c.587 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, leaves NEBUZARADAN in charge of siege of Jerusalem, with instructions to keep Jeremiah safe.  Goes to besiege Riblah, Lebanon. 587 CAH 3
c.587  Jewish CALENDAR , used in Judah from ?, replaced by  BABYLONIAN CALENDAR  until 332. 587
B76 3-600
c.587 Pharaoh APRIES sends Egyptian army into Levant to counter Nebuchadrezzar. 587 MCAW 82, Sdl 4-366
c.586 SIDON, under Egyptians from 588, falls to Babylonians until 539. 586 MCAW 82 573 rcLeb
c.586 Ebed-Melech, Nubian eunuch, asks Zedekiah, for permission to remove Jeremiah from dungeon.  Zed agrees and gives him 30 men.  Ebed-Melech takes Jeremiah back to prison court. Jer 38:7
c.586 EGYPTIAN TROOPS try to relieve siege of Jerusalem, but fail and withdraw. 586 spring: BHoE 587
c.586 ZEDEKIAH king of Judah from 597-86, summons Jeremiah to temple.  Jer repeats same message.  Zed orders Jer to tell the princes that Jer was pleading not to be sent back to the house of Jonathan.  Jer lies as directed, and is sent back to court prison. Jer
38:14-28
c.586 JERUSALEM besieged by Babylonians from 588, falls to Nebuzaradan.  Zedekiah flees to Jericho, and is captured.  Jerusalem under Babylonia until 539. Zed yr 11 Jer 39:2       588 GHH
587 B76 17-946, CAH 3.2, FLAP 185, IDB 2-204, 4-949, RAI3 379, TTT, frN, lara     587/6 WBH 20     586 B76 10-135, 12-926, BCoC 195, BHoE 587, HCC, IDB 3-530, MCAW 82, MNHK 190, RAH 110, Sag1 142, Sdl 4-369, SHWC 30, SOTS 159, ds, trubi
Kingdom of JUDAH ends.  Began 930.
c.586 JEREMIAH removed from prison by Babylonian officers.  Taken in chains to detention camp at Ramah. Jer 32:1, 39:11, 40:1
c.586 JEREMIAH at Ramah, writes scroll (Babylon will be destroyed and desolate.) and gives it to Seriah ben Neriah.  Tells Seriah to read it to the captives at Babylon, then tie it to a rock and throw it in the Euphrates. Jer 51:59
c.586 TEMPLE at Jerusalem, completed 959, destroyed until 538, by Nebuzaradan. Neb yr 10 2K 25:8-9     588 GHH
587 BNTH 57     586 B76 IX-881, MNHK 190, SOTS 145, 236, bihi, btl, htc, trubi
c.586 Λ 3rd DEPORTATION: V  832 adult males first to Riblah by Nebuzaradan.  Includes leaders of Jerusalem.  Zedekiah, Seriah ben Azariah the High Priest from 600, Zephaniah the second priest, Gedaliah, prince Seriah ben Neriah.  Poor people left to be vine dressers and husbandmen.
Nebuchadrezzar-II at Riblah kills sons of Zedekiah in front of him, blinds Zedekiah and sends him to Babylon.
2K 25:11,
Jer 39:5-8,
Jer 52:26-29
587 IDB 2-186, btl 586 B76 12-926, MCAW 82, Sdl 5-4, sl, trubi
c.586 3rd son of Josiah, ZEDEKIAH ends.  King of Judah from 597, deported to Babylon by Nebuchadrezzar-II, who appoints a son of Ahikam GEDALIAH governor of Judah until 585, and tells him to take care of prophet Jeremiah. 587 CAH 3.2, IDB 2-205, 4-948, LEWH 46, MRDK, RAI3, frN, lara
587/6 WBH 37     586 CBCOT, HCC, LEWH 46, MCAW 82, MNHK, Sag, bihi, biti, bivu, ds, hifiI, htc
c.586 GEDALIAH governor of Judah 586-5, goes to Mizpah, encourages submission to Babylon. 2K 25:22
c.586 Jeremiah writes  Lamentations . 586 htc
pre-538 ENBD 707
No he didn't.  Jeremiah is never named or implied. IDB 3-62
50-50 chance. ENBD 707
c.586 JEREMIAH released from detention at Ramah, goes to Mizpah, joins Gedaliah. Jer 40
586 SOTS 237
c.586 Island TYRE besieged by NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562. 587 ENBD 1303     586 MCAW 82, MNHK 186, MWΦ 23, bk
585 B76 X-223, Sdl 4-421
c.586 JERICHO depopulated until 538. 586 wikJ
c.586/5 Dispersed Jews hear that Babylonians have left.  Many return to their homes. Jer 40:11
c.586/5 ISHMAEL ben Nethaniah, of royal blood, intrigues with Baalis king of Ammon, plots to kill Gedaliah. Jer 40:14
c.586/5 GEDALIAH dies.  Governor of Judah for Nebuchadrezzar from 586, at Mizpah, killed by Ishmael ben Nethaniah, who also kills the Jews and "Chaldeans" with him.  Ishmael gathers captives to take them back to Ammon.  Overtaken at Gibeon by Johanan ben Kareah.  Flees with 8 men to Ammon. 2K 25:25, Jer 41:1-11
588 GHH     586 Sdl 4-370, SOTS 344, WBH 37     rcHL, hifiI, trubi
c.585 JOHANAN ben Kareah and remnant of Judah ask Jeremiah for directions from Yahweh.  Jeremiah tells them Yahweh wants them to remain in Judah.  They accuse Jeremiah of lying and head for Egypt.  Jeremiah decides to accompany them. Jer 42
c.585 JEREMIAH, active in Judah from 627, goes to Egypt until death 570. Jer 42
c.585 GERASA, east of Jordan R., under Assyria from 715, no longer so. 585 rcJdn
c.585 BAALIS, king of Ammon from ?, ends. 585 hifiAm
c.585 AMMON, independent from 612, comes under Babylon until 539. 585 hifiAm, rcLeb
c.582 Λ 4th DEPORTATION to Babylon:  under authority of Nebuzaradan: 460 Jews. 582 B76 7-127, 12-926, HCC, LEWH 46, SOTS 249
581 Sdl 5-4, sl
c.582 MOAB, independent from 612, comes under Babylon until 539. 582 rcJdn
c.581 MOAB, under NEBUCHADREZZAR from 605, rebels and is reconquered. 581 CBCOT
c.581 MOAB, kingdom from 1400, ends. 600 vsbblv
c.581 AMMON, under NEBUCHADREZZAR from 585, rebels under king Baalis and is reconquered. 581 CBCOT
c.580 AMMON:  area east of Jordan River south of Jabbok River, occupied by Ammonites from 1300, invaded by desert Arabs. 580 IDB 1-108, 4-2
c.580 RABBAH, capital of Ammon, destroyed by desert Arabs. 580 IDB 4-2
c.580  Book of OBADIAH  written:  An anti-Edomite polemic. soon after 587 IDB 3-579
c.574 Pharaoh APRIES begins series of campaigns into Cyprus and Phoenicia until 570. 574 Shaw 373
c.573 ESHBAAL-III ends.  King of Tyre from 591 on island,  besieged by Babylonians from 586, surrenders.  BAAL-II succeeds until 564. 586 arg     574 ENBD 1303
573 B76 X-223, MCAW 84, MWΦ 23, RAI3, adeT, wikT     573/2 rcLeb     572 Sdl 4-421    571 RAI2, Sag1 143
c.573 TYRE, independent from 630, mainland, besieged from 587, falls to Babylon until 539, but everything of value is moved to island, which remains independent until 332. 573 BHoE 588, LEWH 48, adeT, bk     572 IDB 3-803, Sdl 4-421
571 Sag1 143
c.573 GEBAL, under Tyre from ?, comes under Babylonia until 539. 573 rcLeb
c.571 Mainland TYRE becomes Babylonian province until 539. 573 BHoE 588, TTPC
572 IDB 4-723     571 Sag1 143
c.570 APRIES (Hophra), king of 26th Saite dyn from 589, deposed, flees north to Babylonians in Levant until 567.  Vizir AHMOSE-II usurps until 526. 570 CAH 3.2, 3.3, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, Murn, OCD 88, Shaw, ae, htc, ktut, nar, phou, pic, scar, tig, toureg, wikP     569 RAH 110, Sdl 4-363, resh
568 BHoE, RAI3, WERE, lveg
c.568 Babylonians in Levant attack Egypt again until 567 with little success. 568 B76 11-988, Grim 363, Sdl 5-6, bk     568/7 B76 12-926     567 IDB 3-530
c.567 In NEB-II's year 37 he campaigns against Ahmose-II until 566. 568 B76 11-988, Sdl 5-6
567 IDB 3-530
c.566 Babylonian invasion of Egypt from 567 is defeated.  No further Babylonian attempts on Egypt are recorded. 566 CAH 4-87
yr 4 Shaw 373
c.564 BAAL-II, king of Tyre from 574, ends.  YAKINBAAL succeeds and ends.  CHELBES succeeds until 563. 576 arg     564 MWΦ 23, adeT, rcLeb, wikT     562 GHH
c.563 CHELBES, king of Tyre from 564, ends.  ABBAR succeeds until 562. 575 arg     563 adeT, rcLeb, wikT
c.562 ABBAR, king of Tyre from 563, ends.  MATTAN-III and GER-ASHTHARI succeed until 556. 562 adeT, rcLeb, wikT
c.560  Additions to the 622 Book of ΛDeuteronomyV: 9:1-10:11, 11:26-30, chapter 27, 30:15-20, 31:1-13.  just before 550 IDB 1-504
c.556 MATTAN-III and GER-ASHTHARI, kings of Tyre from 562, end.  BAAL-EZER-III succeeds until 555. 569 arg     562 adeT, wikT
556 rcLeb
c.556 MERBAL, member of captured Tyrian dynasty, returns from Babylon to Tyre. 556 MWΦ 23-4
c.555 BAAL-EZER-III, king of Tyre from 556, end.  MERBAL succeeds until 552. 568 arg
555 adeT, rcLeb, wikT
c.554 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, based at Haran, campaigns against Hamath, Amor, Adummu, Lebanon. 554 MCAW 88
c.553 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, campaigns in Lebanon, raises more troops. 553 RAI2 322
c.552 MERBAL ends.  King of Tyre from 555.  Bro HIRAM-III succeeds to 532. 564 arg     552 MWΦ 24
551 adeT, rcLeb, wikT     533 elay
c.550  Books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings  are submitted to Deuteronomic editing, i.e. obedience to Mosaic law is rewarded, disobedience punished.  This editing is pervasive in Joshua, and supplies introductions and conclusions to stories in Judges.  These books are completed in essentially their present forms. 550
IDB 1-504, 3-712
c.539 HALAP, under Babylon from 609, comes under Persia until 332. 539 B76 1-465, rcS
c.539 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Babylon from 605, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcLeb
c.539 GEBAL, under Babylon from 573, comes under Persia until 333. 539 rcLeb
c.539 DAMASCUS, under Babylon from 605, remains uncommitted until 529. 539 rcS
c.539 ABILA, under Babylon from 605, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcS
c.539 TYRE:  The island remains independent 630-332.
The mainland, under Babylon from 573, voluntarily comes under Persia until 411.
539 adeT, hifi, rcLeb
538 B76 X-223
c.539 SIDON, under Babylon from 598, voluntarily comes under Persia until 332.  Becomes prominent in the region until 350. 539 hifi, rcLeb
c.539 AMOASHTART becomes king of Sidon until ?. 539 elay
c.539 PHOENICIA under Persia divided into 4 vassal kingdoms:  Sidon, Tyre, Arvad, and Gebal. 539 wikΦ
c.539 DOR, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 ACCO, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 SAMARIA, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 JOPPA, under Babylon from 609, comes under Persia until 360s. 539 rcHL
c.539 HAMATH, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcS
c.539 GALILEE, under Babylon from 609, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 GERASA, east of Jordan R., comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcJdn
c.539 BETH-SHAN in north Jordan valley, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcCan
c.539 GEZER on plain of Sharon, under Babylon from 587, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcCan
c.539 JUDAH and JERUSALEM, under Babylon from 586, voluntarily comes under Persia until 332. 539 LEWH 46, rcHL, jomm
c.539 Philistine cities ASHDOD and ASKALON, under Babylon from 612, come under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 Philistine city GAZA, under Babylon from 612, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcHL
c.539 AMMON, under Babylon from 585, comes under Persia until 332. 539 hifiAm, rcLeb
c.539 MOAB, under Babylon from 582, comes under Persia until 332. 539 rcJdn
c.539 EDOM, under Babylon from 612, independent until 275. 539 rcHL
c.538 Jews:  SHESHBAZZAR, ZERUBABEL, and JOSHUA lead 1st group of returnees from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezr 2:2, Neh 7:7, 1Esd 5:8
538 CAH 3-409, CBCOT, IDB 3-534, 4-325, Sdl 5-41, WBH 21, bihi, btl, htc, rcHL, trubi     538/7 bihi     536 GHH
Their common language V is no longer Hebrew but Λ ARAMAIC V.   (See  Spain 500, clay/parchment 460) 539 wikAL
c.538 TEMPLE, destroyed from 586, foundation of 2nd temple started by Sheshbazar.  Completed 516 Ezr 5:16, 1Esd 6:20     538 CAH 3-409, WBH 21, btl, trubi     537 hifiI
536 DHJ 338, HCC, bihi, htc     535 GHH
c.538 Son of Jehoiachin, SHESHBAZZAR dies.  Persian satrap of Judah from 538.  Neph ZERUBABEL succeeds until 513. Ezr 5:16, 1Esd 6:20
538 CAH 3-409, bihi
537 hifiI     520 rcHL
c.538 JOSHUA ben Jozadak becomes High Priest until 515. 538 HCC     525 sjud 515 wikHP
c.538 JERICHO, depopulated from 586, refounded by Cyrus one mile southeast of its historic site at the mound of Tell es-Sultan and returned Jewish exiles.  Under Jerusalem until ?. 538 wikJ
c.536 Adversaries of the Jews hear the celebration in Jerusalem, offer to help rebuild temple, rebuffed by Zerubabel, hinder Jews with secret plots and hired counselors until 520. Ezr 4:1-4, 1Esd 5:68
535 GHH
c.532 HIRAM-III ends.  King of Tyre from 552.  Successor unknown until 490. 544 arg     532 MWΦ 24, adeT, rcLeb, wikT
c.529 DAMASCUS, uncertain from 539, taken by Cambyses-II.  Under Medo-Persia until 333. 530
B76 5-447
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, camps at Gaza in preparation to invade Egypt, buys camels from Nabataeans for 55 mile march thru desert. 525
SOTS 244
c.525 GAZA incorporated into Medo-Persian Empire until 332, but remains virtually independent. 525
IDB 2-357
c.525 CAMBYSES-II from Mesopotamia thru Levant to Egypt. guess
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, invades Egypt until 522. 525 B76 8-347, BHoE 595, 601, CAH 4-15, MCAW 96, Shaw 374, SOTS 244, WPOT 320
c.522 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, in Africa from 525, returns to Palestine. 522 B76 9-834,
CAH 4-23, WPOT 321
c.522 CAMBYSES-II, son of Cyrus-II, king of Medo-Persia from 529, dies.
Of unknown causes at Damascus, according to Herodotus.
Accidentally stabs himself while leaping onto his horse at Haran, according to Behistun Inscription.
General DARIUS-I HYSTASPES succeeds until 486.
522 B76 II-478, 9-833, 11-989, 17-947, CAH 4-173, FLAP 195, MCAW 99, MNHK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-48, Shaw 374, SOTS 244, WPOT 321
c.520 TYRE, under a local dynasty 556-?, island population: 2,500, mainland population larger. 520 TTPC
c.520 CARTHAGE detatches itself politically from TYRE. 520 IDB 4-723
c.520 ZERUBABEL, governor of Judah 538-13, leads 2nd group of returnees from Babylonia to Jerusalem: 42,360 men, 7,337 servants, 245 singers, 49,942 total. Ezr 2:55-70,
Neh 7:60-66, 1Esd 5:8
520 Sdl 5-41, WBH 21
c.520 Prophet HAGGAI begins ministry until 505, says it is not time to rebuild the temple, then tells them it is time. Darius yr 2 Hag 1:1-11
520 B76 2-921, CBCOT, DHJ 340, FLAP 195, GHH, IDB 1-504, 2-510, Sdl 5-120, bihi, bk, ds, htc     519 btl
c.520 Prophet HAGGAI tells Zerubabel that Yahweh will cause a great revolution soon. Hag 2:21
520 IDB 3-363
c.520 2nd TEMPLE, building resumed under Zerubabel until 516.  Altar built.  Sacrifices begun. Darius yr 2: Hag 1:1-15, Wars 6:5:8
return yr 2: 1Esd 5:57     520 B76 IX-881, CBCOT, DBANE 63, HCC, LEWH 46, MCAW 97, Sdl 5-120, SOTS 145, 259, WPOT 323, htc
c.520 Prophet HAGGAI tells Zerubabel and Joshua, don't be dismayed because this temple is not as grand as Solomon's.  Be strong.  The glory of this temple will be greater than Solomon's. Darius yr 2 Hag 2
520 HCC, IDB 2-510
c.520 Prophet ZECHARIAH begins until 488.  Tells people Yahweh says obey Yahweh.  Tells Jews not to be like their fathers who wouldn't listen to the prophets.  Points out that even their fathers said that Yahweh's punishment was just. Darius yr 2 Zec 1:1
520 DHJ 340, GHH, HCC, IDB 4-944, Sdl 5-122, bihi, htc
c.520 Prophet HAGGAI tells Jews to reflect on past and present.  Before building the temple there was poverty.  After building it there will be prosperity.
Promises a day when kingdoms will be destroyed and Zerubabel exalted.
Hag 2:10...
520 IDB 2-510, Sdl 5-120
c.519 Prophet ZECHARIAH gets 8 visions concerning future.  Tells Zerubabel not to get political. Zec 1:7 - 6:15
519 Sdl 5-122, WPOT 323
c.519 TATTENAI, Persian satrap of Samaria and SISINNES, Persian satrap of Syria both write to Darius-I advising him not to allow the rebuilding of the Jewish temple. Ezr 5, 1Esd 6 520 GHH 519/8 HCC
c.518 Prophet ZECHARIAH tells people Yahweh didn't hear the prayers of their ancestors because they were unjust and oppressive. Zec 7:1-14
518 Sdl 5-124
c.519 DARIUS-I locates Cyrus' 538 decree allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem, confirms it, orders his satrap of Samaria, Tattenai, to help the Jews. 519 GHH 519/8 HCC
c.516

pub dom
2nd TEMPLE begun 538, resumed 520, completed and dedicated.  Stands until 70CE.
Darius yr 6 Ezr 6:15       517 hifiI
516 B76 IX-881, BNTH 103, DHJ 341, GHH, HHC, IDB 1-504, WBH 21, bihi, btl, ds, htc, trubi
515 FLAP 196, LEWH 46, Sdl 5-124, SOTS 245
c.516  SOLAR CALENDAR  revived with dedication of 2nd Temple.  Used until 450. 516 IDB 4-924
c.515 JOSHUA ben Jozadak, High Priest from 538, ends.  Son JOIAKIM succeeds until 495. Antiq 11:5:1     515 sjud
490 gw, hifiI, wikHP
483 GHH
c.515  More additions to ΛDeuteronomy: Chs 14 and 2930  are added.   The legal sections of chs 1925  are expanded to meet new situations.   Chs 3134  are added as a new conclusion. end of the exile: wikBD
c.515 ZERUBABEL suspended.  Governor of Judah from 538, either goes on embassy to Babylon to rebut the Samaritans, or is recalled to Babylon.  He is imprisoned until 510.  High Priest JOIAKIM ben Joshua assumes leadership until 495. Antiq 11:4:9
c.505 Prophet HAGGAI, active from 520, ends. 505 ds

Levant 500-301
V