by 500 MINES at Mt. LAURION provide Athens with Lead, silver, zinc, and iron. by 500 LEWH 75 484 GHH
c.500 IRON is common in Greece and Aegean islands. 500 B76 18-30
c.500 THESSALIANS invade PHOCIS, and are defeated in 2 battles. 500 B76 8-345
c.500 Chalcidian helmet Chalcidian bronze helmet.  (Chalcis Euboea, not Chalcidice)  Also worn extensively in Greek southern parts of Italy in same period. 500 wikCH

Photo: OTRS
c.500 Corinthian helmet Corinthian bronze helmet from the tomb of Denda.  This model tips back over the head, and is depicted on more sculpture and paintings than any other helmet. 500 wikCrH

Photo: GNU FDL
c.500 CINEAS king of Thessaly from ?, ends.  THORAX succeeds until 476. 500 rcSB2
c.500 Theater in Greece, containing a partly religious function, has been free to the public.  Each Theater is built for each festival, and torn down afterward.  A roofed theater is so over-crowded that the wooden scaffolding falls in.  This provokes the building of permanent theatres.  Theater owners start charging 2 obols. 500
CDGRA 625, DGRA 1126, ScDGRA 317, 321
c.500 Theater of Dionysus begun on southeast slope of Acropolis at Athens.  Not finished until 340. 500 DGRG 1-257, 284, OCD 141     493 TToH
c.500 SATYR PLAY introduced to Athens by Pratinas of Phlios, 1st satyrical dramatist.  Baudy satire featuring choruses of satyrs, and based on Greek mythology, rife with mock drunkenness, ribald sexuality including phallic props, pranks, sight gags.  Tracable to ancient rural celebrations in honor of Dionysus. 500 CDGRA 638, TToH, wikPr, wikSP
c.500 Poet STOBAEOS play  Florilegium .
"Life is a theater in which the worst people often have the best seats."
500 MNDQ 687
It must have been fun to watch the front rows and see who didn't laugh. Cary
c.500 HERMOCREON eponymous archon of Athens from 501, ends.  SMYROS succeeds until 499. 500 GHH, wikEA
c.500 EPIMENIDES, religious teacher of Crete, is active at Athens, according to Plato. 500
OCD 398
c.500 SLAVES constitute half the adult population of Athens. 500 TTT
c.500 PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE is biggest single force in Greek interstate affairs. by 500
B76 8-349
c.500 GREEK POTTERY:  Red figures on black ground from 530, begins its greatest period from now to 480. 500
B76 14-899
c.500 Kylix cup KYLIX wine drinking cup used in Greece.  The near flat interior circle on the interior base of the cup, called the tondo, is painted in Black or Red-figure style.  The picture is revealed gradually as the wine is drained.  The bowl held roughly 8 oz/250ml.  The word comes from the Greek kylix "cup", which is cognate with Latin calix, the source of the English word "chalice". 500 wikKlx

c.500 Persian-Greek duel A Persian archer is overcome by a Greek hoplite.  Both use a kopis sword.  The picture is painted in a kylix. 500 wikKp

Photo {{PD-US}}
c.500 GREEK WRITING only now becomes consistently left to right. by 500 B76 1-623
c.500 FILTERS:  Hippocrates of Cos, physician, invents HIPPOCRATIC SLEEVE, a bag for filtering liquids. 500 bhwp, kcd, rndm, wikans
c.499 ARISTAGORAS, tyrant of Miletos, goes to Greece until 498, reverses policy, now tries to get Greeks to support Ionia against PersiansAristagoras visits Sparta, and is refused by Cleomenes-I of Sparta, but successful in Athens and Eretria. 500 DGRBM 1-792
499 CAH 4-218, CDCC 488, MCAW 104, OCD 109
499/8 B76 I-514
498 LEWH 67
c.499 ARISTAGORAS exhibits at Sparta a map on copper of the countries between Ionia and Susa. 500 DGRG 1-235
c.499 MILTIADES, Athenian tyrant of Chersonese 516-?, vassal of Persia from 513, joins Ionian Revolt. 499
B76 12-203
c.499 SMYROS eponymous archon of Athens from 500, ends.  LACRATIDES succeeds until 498, after which the successor is unknown until 497. 499 wikEA
c.499 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 refuses to support Ionian Revolt.  Remains unaware of Persian threat until 491. 499 MCAW 104, OCD 250
c.499 AESCHYLUS, Athenian playwright age 26, produces his 1st play, competes in tragedy competition, but loses to Pratinas and Phrynichos. 499 CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-40, Dur 2-383, GHH, MCAW 107, bk
c.498 AMYNTAS-I ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 547.  Son ALEXANDER-I succeeds until 454.  Alexander-I is the 1st Macedonian lover of Greek culture. 500 GHH     498 rcSB2, wikArg, wikAlx1, wikAmnt, wikLKM
495 MRDK, OCD 39, vrb
480 IDB 3-216
c.498 Athens sends 20 ships (Eretria sends 5.) to help Ionians against Persians.  Unsuccessful. 498 LEWH 67,
MCAW 104, OCD 140
c.498 PINDAR, lyric poet of Cynocephalae Thessaly, publishes  Pythian Ode #10 ,  his earliest surviving poem. 498 B76 14-466, MCAW 107, OCD 833, OHG
Macedonia Thrace
c.497 Athenians try and fail to conquer Eion and Ennea Hodoi (later called Amphipolis) on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice. 497 OCD 54, lvG
c.497 BYZANTIUM, under Persia from 512, joins Ionian Revolt until 494. 497 rcT
496 B76 9-1069
c.497 ARISTAGORAS of Miletos flees from Medo-Persians to Ennea Hodoi, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice, but is driven out, killed in battle by Thracians, his army massacred. 497 B76 I-514, CAH 4-224, DGRBM, DGRG 1-126, GHH, IDB 1-121, MCAW 107
c.497 ARCHIAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 496. 497 wikEA
c.497 Greeks and Cartaginians begin trading. 497 GHH
c.496 Scythians, consolidated after repelling the Persians, invade south of Danube as far as Thracian Chersonese. 496 CHEIA 101, vrb
c.496 MILTIADES, former tyrant of Chersonese, exiled from ?, restored to tyranny by Thracians until 490. 496 GRG 264, OCD 687
c.496 ARCHIAS eponymous archon of Athens from 495, ends.  HIPPARCHOS, Pisistratid anti-Ionian, elected until 495. 496 CAH 4-196, LEWH 66, wikEA
c.495 HIPPARCHOS, Pisistratid anti-Ionian eponymous archon of Athens from 496, ends.  PHILIPPOS succeeds until 494. 495 wikEA
c.494 BYZANTIUM, with Ionian Revolt from 497, back under Persia until 478. 494 rcT
c.494 PHILIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 495, ends.  PYTHOCRITOS succeeds until 493. 494 GHH, wikEA
c.494 ArgolisCLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 attacks ARGOS just to prove Spartan superiority.  Wipes out Argive force at Sepeia near Tiryns, but is repelled from the walls of ARGOS by its women rallied by poetess Telesila. 494 B76 II-989, CAH 4-164, CDCC 488, LEWH 65,
OCD 106, 250, OHG 40
494±2 At the 71st or 72nd Olympic games, boxer Kleomedes of Astypalia, using illegal tactics, kills his opponent Ikkos.  He is disqualified and heavily fined.  Kleomedes is so angry he returns to his home town, and pulls out a post supporting a school roof.  Many children are killed.  The people stoned him.  He runs into a temple and climbs into a chest.  When the people open it, he is gone.  The oracle orders the people to worship Kleomedes as a hero and a divinity. 496 or 92 wik
c.493 PYTHOCRITOS Archon of Athens from 494, ends.  Anti-Persian war-hawk THEMISTOCLES the lesser, elected until mid 492. 493 B76 18-269, Dur 2-66, CAH 4-170, LEWH 66, OCD 1053, OHG, RAH 193, lvG, rcSB3, wikEA
c.493 MILTIADES, tyrant of Chersonese 496-90, vassal of DARIUS-I from 513 flees from Persians, returns to Athens.  Chersonese comes under Persia until 480. 493 CAH 4-170-1, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 229, 687, TToH, rcT     492 wikMltY
c.493 XANTHIPPOS brings MILTIADES to trial for becoming a vassal of Persians 513-499, though he is ostensibly tried for "tyranny". 493 CAH 4-170-1, OCD 229, 687, 1140
c.493 PHRYNICOS, tragic dramatist of Athens, produces  Fall of Miletos .  Reminds Athenians so vividly of Persian infamy and Greek shame that he is fined 1,000 drachmas. 494 DGRA 1144, MCAW 107 493 CAH 4-170, RAH 193, bk 492 OCD 829
no date: B76 VII-973
c.493/2 THEMISTOCLES, archon 493/2, persuades Athenians to transfer their fleet from the closer but open bay of Phaleron to the closed bay at PIRAEUS promontory 4 miles southwest of Athens.  Fortifications are begun, but not finished until after the Persian wars.  Soon becomes a port town. 493 B76 VII-1026, Dur 2-237
493/2 B76 18-269, CDCC 684, 878, OCD 835, OHG 40
c.492 1st Persian punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea led by MARDONIUS, who crosses Hellespont accompanied by a large fleet (mostly Phoenician) and remains in Europe until later that year.  1st PERSIAN WAR begins until 490. 492 DGRBM, LEWH 67, RAH 194, lvG, Φnc
c.492 CHERSONESE peninsula, abandoned by Miltiades 493, conquered by Persian MARDONIUS.  Under Persians until 477. guess
c.492 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Thracian tribes from 675, comes under Persians until 480. 493 rcEB
c.492 THRACE conquered by MARDONIUS.  Under Persians until 479. 496 GHH     492 B76 9-835, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 804, lvG
c.492 MACEDONIA submits to MARDONIUS.  Under Persians until 479. 497 GHH
492 DGRBM 1-118, lvG
c.492 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 495-50, reluctant ally of Xerxes-I 492-?, is compelled to furnish troops to MARDONIUS. 492 LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 39
c.492 Anti-Persian war-hawk THEMISTOCLES the lesser, eponymous archon of Athens from 493, ends.  DIOGNETOS succeeds until 491. 492 GHH, rcSB3, wikEA
c.492 MARDONIUS sends fleet to punish AthensFleet is destroyed in a storm off Mt. Athos in Chalcidice.  Mardonius withdraws from Thrace to Anatolia. 492 B76 8-349, CDCC 181, DGRG 1-309, GHH,
LEWH 67, OCD 143, Φnc
c.491 Mardonius tells Greeks that Darius-I demands earth and water (submission) from them. 492 TToH     491 CAH 4, DGRBM, GHH
c.491 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 tries to arrest pro-Persian party at Aegina island.  Thwarted by Eurypontid colleague DEMARATOS, who gets the Aeginetans to refuse to recognize Cleomenes' authority. 491 B76 II-989, DGRBM 1-958, OCD 250, 324
c.491 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 persuades Delphic Oracle to declare Demaratos illegitimate. 491 OCD 250, 324
c.491 Son of Ariston, DEMARATOS ends.  15th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 515 (with Cleomenes-I), falsely charged with illegitimacy by Cleomenes-I, deposed, flees to Darius-I.  Son of Menares, LEOTYCHIDAS-II succeeds to 469. 491 B76 VI-157, DGRBM 2-761, Dur 2-722, GHH, OCD 324, 596, 1007, MRDK, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.491 DIOGNETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 492, ends.  HYBRILIDES succeeds until 490. 491 GHH, rcSB3, wikEA
c.491 CLEOMENES-I tries to unite the Arcadians against Sparta, and to get Arcadian leaders to swear to obey him.  He fails and returns to Sparta. 491
CAH 6-583
c.491 Athens and Sparta come closer together because of Persian threat, try to prevent ally Aegina from defecting to Persia, fail to plan unified defense. 491
B76 8-310
c.491 AEGINA Island, fearing loss of Pontic trade, allies with Medo-Persia, and is therefore attacked by Athens. 491 CAH 4, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 105, OCD 12
490 2nd Persian punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea led by ARTAPHERNES-II, son of the satrap of Sardis, and his uncle DATIS, a Mede.  Both land on Euboea with 200,000 Medo-Persian troops.  Artaphernes besieges Eretria.
Hippias, X-tyrant of Athens, is with them, hoping to be restored.
491 DGRBM,
Dur 2-235
490 GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 140, 804, OHG, SHWC 63, RAH 195, lvG
490 ERETRIA Euboea besieged by Atraphernes until later 490. 490 B76 8-349, DGRG 1-847, OCD 412, LEWH 67, lvG
c.490 Athens has no cavalry. 452 CDGRA 285
490 CARYSTOS Euboea taken by Persians until ?. 490 B76 III-985
490 ChalcidiceACANTHOS Chalcidice comes under Persia until 479. 490 rcSB2
490 In Aegina / Athens war, Athenian SOPHANES kills Argive Eurybates in single combat. 490 DGRBM 3-865
490 Aegina island defeats Athenians at sea. 490 CAH 4
490 Temple of Aphaea at Aegina. 490 Dur 2-66
490 Aug.

490 Aug.
MarathonTraitors in ERETRIA Euboea open gates.  Aug 3, ERETRIA Euboea falls to ARTAPHERNES, and is destroyed, inhabitants enslaved and deported to Elam.
CARYSTOS, after slight resistance, is also captured.

Artaphernes and Datis, guided by Hippias, land unopposed in Attica at Bay of Marathon Aug 7.
B76 III-985, 8-130, 349, DGRBM, DGRG 1-556, 847, 872, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 140, 412, OHG, RAH 195
490 Aug. 3rd Temple of APOLLO DAPHNEPHOROS at Eretria Euboea from 725 destroyed by Persians, but inscriptions indicate that the site remains a cult center. 490 CDCC 332, prs
490 Aug PHIDIPPIDES, (later corrupted to Philippides) Athenian courier at Marathon, runs 150 miles in 2 days to solicit Spartan help against Persians at Marathon. 490 B76 8-349, MCAW 108, OCD 811
490 CALLIMACHOS Athenian commander, and strategos ARISTIDES both accept Miltiades' plan to meet the Persians in the field rather than sit and wait for them to attack. 490 OCD 110, 194, 688
490 Aug. BATTLE of MARATHON:  Athenians under CALLIMACHOS and strategos ARISTIDES, aided by Plataeans, outnumbered more than 2 to 1, defeat Persians under DATIS.   DETAILS 490 B76 8-310, 349, 9-835, CAH 4, CDCC 550, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 281, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 194, 480, 688, OHG, RAH, TToH, bk, vrb
Herodotus says 192 Greeks and 6,400 Persians are killed.
490 Aug. Athenian polemarch CALLIMACHOS, commander of the right wing at Marathon, killed in battle. 490 DGRBM 1-571, OCD 194
490 Aug PHIDIPPIDES, Athenian courier at Marathon, runs 26 miles to Athens:
  1.  before the battle to ask for Spartan aid.
  2.  after the battle to inform them of victory.
In either case, he dies of exhaustion.
490 DGRBM 3-255, TTPC 15
490 Aug. Artaphernes and army retreat to fleet, sail around to attack Athens. 490 B76 8-310, MCAW 108
490 Aug. Athenian army returns soon enough to prevent the pro-Pisistratid Alcmaeonids from surrendering Athens to Artaphernes.  Persians sail away to Ionia.   1st PERSIAN WAR from 492 ends. 490 LEWH 67, MCAW 108
490 Aug. SPARTANS, after waiting for a full moon in accordance with religious observances, arrive at Athens too late to be of any use. 490 B76 8-310, 349, MCAW 109
c.490 Athenian CYNAEGEIRUS does some heroics at Marathon that expand with time.  Herodotus says he siezed a Persian ship, but gets his right hand cut off before being killed.  The next version says he then gabbed the Persian ship with his left hand before being killed.  Justin will say after losing both hands, he clung on with his teeth. 490 DGRBM 1-911
c.490 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos Island, in Thessaly from 514, returns to Athens until 476. 490 OCD 991
c.490 ALCMAEONID family of Athens suspected of collusion with Persians. 490 OCD 38
c.490 HIPPIAS, former tyrant of Athens 527-10, dies at Lemnos enroute to Anatolia. 490 B76 V-55, Dur 2-730, MCAW 111
c.490 Son of Alaxandridas, CLEOMENES-I dies.  15th Agiad king of Sparta from 520 (with Leotychidas-II from 491), dies mysteriously.
Suicide in a fit of insanity according to Herodotus.
Half bro LEONIDAS succeeds to 480.
491 DGRBM 2-750
490 B76 II-989, VI-152, 8-348, CDCC 486, Dur 2-719, OCD 250, 1007, OHG, rcPl, wikKS
489 MCAW 111, MRDK     488 lvG
c.490 Power of EPHORS at Sparta peaks. 490 GHH
c.490 Helots of Messenia, under Sparta from ?, rebel, hold up in fortress on Mt. Ithome. 490
B76 VI-822
c.490 HYBRILIDES, eponymous archon from 491, ends.  PHOENIPPOS succeeds until 489. 491 GHH 490 wikEA
c.489 MILTIADES (hero of Marathon) advocates and leads a 70 ship expedition to conquer the islands which had submitted to Persia, starts with PAROS Island.  Fails miserably.  Loses popularity. 490 DGRBM 3-1286, LEWH 67, OCD 1053
490/89 OCD 1140
489 B76 8-349, 12-204, Dur 2-66, MCAW 108, OCD 240, 688, RAH 199, bk, wikMltY
c.489 MILTIADES (hero of Marathon) prosecuted for failure at Paros by Xanthippos, sentenced to death, commuted to a fine of 50 talents.  He can't pay it and is imprisoned. 490 DGRBM 3-1286
489 B76 8-349, 12-204, Dur 2-66, MCAW 108, OCD 240, 688, RAH 199, bk, wikMltY     488 GHH
c.489 PHOENIPPOS, eponymous archon from 490, ends.  ARISTIDES the Just, strategos from 490, succeeds until 488. 489 CAH 4, CDCC 76, Dur 2-66, OCD 110, OHG 40, wikEA
c.489 Athenians gather much spoils from Marathon and deposit it in Delphi. 489 MCAW 109
c.489 Athens dominant in Aegean. 489 GHH
c.489 MILTIADES the elder dies in disgrace of wounds received at Paros Island.  Son CIMON, in order to obtain the corpse for burial, takes his place in prison until the 50 talent fine imposed on Miltiades is paid by Callias on his marriage to Cimon's sister.  CIMON, now a role model for piety, is poised to enter Athenian politics. 489 B76 18-270, DGRBM 1-750, OCD 240, 687, bk, lvG
488 Dur 2-736, TToH
c.488 Athenian CONSTITUTION REFORM begins until 487. 488 LEWH 67
c.488 ARISTIDES the Just, eponymous archon from 489, ends.  ANCHISES succeeds until 487. 488 wikEA
c.488 COMEDY brought to Attica.  Comic poet Chiones (Chionides) produces 1st play. 488 DGRA 343 487 GHH
c.487 Provision of COMEDY V at the Athenian City Dionysia (until now performed by volunteers) is made an official part of the Dionysia and the responsibility of a particular city magistrate.  The CHOREGIA for comedy begins.   (See comedy 560) 488 OCD 269
488/7 OHG 180
487 OHG     486 B76 10-1092, CDCC 222, OCD 230, MCAW 109
c.487 Athenian comic poet Chionides first exhibits. 487 DGRBM
c.487 MEGACLES, archon from 490, ends.  THEMISTOCLES succeeds until 476. 487 rcSB3
c.487 ANCHISES, eponymous archon from 488, ends.  TELESINOS succeeds until 486. 487 wikEA
c.487 AEGINA Island has undecisive war with Athens until 483. 489 LEWH 67
487 MCAW 108, OHG, bk
c.487 Athenian CONSTITUTION REFORM inspired by Themistocles:  The 9 archons, until now elected by Assembly, are henceforth chosen by LOT (i.e. luck) from 500 candidates elected by the Demes, later from a body of 100.  Thereby their political importance ends.  No important politicians become archons afterward.
To guard against tyranny, OSTRACISM, an uninforced law from 508/7, is introduced:  No less than 6,000 votes are cast for the title of least popular man in Athens.  The "winner" must leave Athens for 10 years.  He remains a citizen, and keeps his property.  Ostracism repealed 452.
487 B76 8-340, 352, CAH 4-51, CDGRA 65, Dur 2-263, LEWH 67, MCAW 109, OCD 101, 762, OHG 39, RAH 199
487/6 CAH 4
c.487 DEMOCRACY, in Athens from 508, is compromized by oligarchic powers until 462/1. guess
c.487 HIPPARCHOS son of Charmos is the 1st man ostracized from Athens. 488/7 lvG     487 CAH 4-152, bk
OCD 762, OHG     487/6 LEWH 68
c.486 Alcmaeonid MEGACLES, son of Hippocrates, and neph of Cleisthenes, is the 2nd man ostracized from Athens. 487/6 lvG     486 CAH 4-153,
OCD 38, 762     486/5 LEWH 68
c.486 TELESINOS, eponymous archon from 487, ends.  Successor unknown until 485. 486 wikEA
c.486 Athens sends troops to help Egypt against Persians. 487 OHG     486 B76 9-835, MCAW 108     485 CAH 4-23
c.485 Callias "the Mede", a partisan of Hippias is the 3rd man ostracized from Athens. 485 OCD 762
c.485 Athens and Aegina island renew hostilities. 485 CAH 4     484 GHH
c.485 PHILOCRATES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 484. 485 wikEA
c.485 Scythian / Thracian war from 496 ends with treaty establishing Danube as boundary. 485 vrb
c.485 SCYTHIANS, occupying lands south of the Danube from 496, make treaties with Thracians and others, and withdraw to north of Danube. 486/5 lvG 485 vrb
c.485 ANACREON, poet of Teos Ionia, in Thessaly from 514, dies. 495 TToH     485 bk 475 Dur 2-711
500-475 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.484 Alcmaeonid XANTHIPPOS, son of Ariphron, father of Pericles, and husband of Megacles" sis Agariste, ally of the Alcmaeonids, is the 4th man ostracized from Athens, but he receives amnesty in 480. 485/4 lvG
484 CAH 4, OCD 38, 762, 1140, bk 484/3 LEWH 68
c.484 PHILOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 485, ends.  LEOSTRATOS succeeds until 483. 484 wikEA
c.484 HALIARTOS Boeotia resists Persians, and is destroyed.  Soon rebuilt. 484 DGRG 1-1026
c.484 Temple of Demeter at Eleusis burnt by Persians.  Not restored until time of Pericles. 484 DGRG 1-813
c.484 AESCHYLUS, Athenian playwright, wins 1st victory at the City Dionysia, but the play is now lost. 484 B76 1-148, CDCC 16, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-40, 3-869, Dur 2-383, GHH, MCAW 109, OCD 17, OHG, TToH, TTPC
c.484/3 Callixenos, son of Aristonymos, is the 5th man ostracized from Athens. 484/3 lvG
c.484/3 Anti-Persian party (nobles led by ARISTIDES, commons led by THEMISTOCLES) gains power in Athens. no date: LEWH 67
c.483 ChalcidicePersians in Chalcidice, to avoid repeating the naval disaster of 492, begin a canal across ATHOS, the east promontory of Chalcidice, until 481. 483
OCD 143
c.483 LEOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 484, ends.  NICODEMOS succeeds until 482. 483 wikEA
c.483 SILVER strike at mines at Mt. Laurion rescues Athenian treasury with 100 extra talents. 484 GHH     483 CDCC 608, Dur 2-270, OCD 1053     483/2 lvG     482 OHG 40
c.483 THEMISTOCLES persuades Athenians to use silver from mines at Mt. Laurion to build navy from 70 to 200 triremes.  ARISTIDES would rather distribute the money among the citizens. 483 B76 18-270, CDCC 878, CGS 578, MCAW 109, OCD 1053, TToH     483/2 CAH 4     482 Dur 2-237, OHG 40, bk     no date: LEWH 67
c.483 Athens / Aegina Island war, intermittent from 487, ends indecisively.  Peace treaty in 481. 483 LEWH 67, OHG
c.482 ABDERA Thrace, under Greeks of Teos from 541, comes under Persia until 479. 482 rcSB2
Macedonia Thrace
c.482 ARISTIDES "the Just" is 6th man ostracised from Athens because of opposition to Themistocles' plan to use silver from Laurion to build a fleet.  Aristides receives amnesty in 480. 483 DGRBM 3-1026, GHH
483/2 CAH 4, DGRBM 1-294, lvG 482 B76 I-515, 8-350, CAH 4, CDCC 76, Dur 2-237, OCD 110, 762, RAH 199, TToH, bk
c.482 NICODEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 483, ends.  Successor unknown until 481. 482 wikEA
c.481 Persian canal across ATHOS, the east promontory of Chalcidice, begun 483, completed.  1½ miles long, 65-100 feet deep, 20 feet wide. 481 OCD 143 480 CDCC 160, 181
c.481 HYPSICHIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 480. 481 wikEA
c.481 Themistocles is eponymous archon. 481 DGRBM 3-1026
481 fall Pan-Hellenic congress assembles at Isthmus of Corinth.  Some are not prepared for active resistance against PersiaPeloponnesian League follows Sparta.  Argos remains stubbornly neutral until 479. 481 B76 8-350, CAH 4, OCD 805, RAH 200, lvG 480 OCD 106, OHG 41
c.481 Spartan EURYBIADES becomes 1st admiral of Peloponnesian League until 480. 481 OCD 422
480 early XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65, now at Sardis, demands earth and water (submission) from all Greek states.  Most refuse. 480 LEWH 68
c.480 Athenians Cimon, Xanthippos, and Myronides sent to Sparta. 480 OCD 716
480 spring XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 with 180,000 troops crosses to Europe on pontoon bridges from Abydos.  Advances slowly.   2nd PERSIAN WAR begins until 479. 480 B76 8-310, 9-835, CDCC 938, IDB 4-922, MCAW 113, OCD 1, 140, 595, 1144, OHG, SHWC 63, lvG, vrb
c.480 WINCH:  Wooden winches used by Persians to tighten cables for a pontoon bridge. 480 wikWn
Macedonia Thrace
c.480 BOGES, king of Eion Thrace, submits to Xerxes-I, continues in office until 475. 480 DGRBM 1-498
c.480 TIMOXENOS commander of the troops of Scione Chalcidice, tries to betray Potidaea to Xerxes-I, but his treachery is discovered. 480 DGRBM 3-1151
c.480 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 498-52 becomes ally of Xerxes-I. 480 lvG
c.480 Delphic oracle advises Athenians to trust in "wooden walls" to defend against the Persians.  Priests interpret it as advice to stay in the city.  Themistocles says the oracle refers to ships. 480 OHG 312
c.480 Themistocles persuades Athenians to build 200 ships. 481 DGRBM, GHH
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela 490-78, Syracuse 485-78 sends a treasure ship under Cadmos to Delphi, with orders to give the treasure to the Persians if they win, and bring it back if the Greeks win.  Cadmos obeys completely. 480 DGRBM 1-524
c.480 DEMARATOS, former Eurypontid king of Sparta 515-491 assists Xerxes-I against Greece. 480
OCD 324
c.480 ALFALFA, used by Persians as horse fodder, introduced to Greece.  Greeks begin growing it 470. no date: TTPC
480 GENERAL AMNESTY granted to ostracized Athenians because of approach of Xerxes-I.  Enemies of Themistocles return. 481 OCD 1053, bk 480 OCD 110
480 ARISTIDES ostracised from 482 recalled from Aegina to Athens, becomes strategos until at least 478. 480 B76 I-515, CDCC 76, DGRBM 1-294, GHH, OCD 110
480 All 30 Greek states hold a congress, form alliance under LEONIDAS Agiad king of Sparta 490-80. 481 OHG 41 480 B76 8-310

ThessalyTHEMISTOCLES, sent to hold the pass at Tempe Thessaly, withdraws at sight of Persian army. 480 CDCC 878, LEWH 68
480 Greek strategy:  Hold back the Persians at Thermopylae, while the Greek fleet at the Gulf of Artemisium defeats the Persian fleet and compells a Persian retreat. 480 CAH 5, LEWH 68
480 LEONIDAS Agiad king of Sparta 490-80, with a guard of 300 troops, marches toward Thermopylae, picks up volunteers enroute, secures the pass with 7,000 hoplites. 480 B76 8-311, 348, OCD 250, 595, 1007, OHG     489 MRDK
480 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 (with 1,700,000 troops according to Herodotus) dispatches 200 ships around Euboea to close the channel.  Greeks don't see them. 480
B76 8-311
480 EURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, commands 271 ships stationed at Artemisium Cape in north Euboea.  They are forced to withdraw by the Persian fleet. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, OCD 805, OHG
480 Battle of THERMOPYLAE begins.  XERXES-I attacks Thermopylae with best infantry, suffers heavy losses. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, GHH

ThermopylaeGreek traitor EPHIALTES informs Persians of a mountain pass by which troops can get behind Leonidas and his Greeks.
Persians, guided by Ephialtes, send top Persian infantry around Thermopylae, rout a small Phocian guard.
B76 8-311, LEWH 68
480 Greeks at Thermopylae outflanked by Persians.  Rear guard is destroyed. 480 OCD 805
480 LEONIDAS learns of defeat of rear guard.  Retains 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, and some Thebans.  Sends the rest home. 480 B76 8-311, LEWH 68, MRDK, OCD 1007
480 STORM prevents admiral Eurybiades from sailing from Artemisium Cape in north Euboea to face Persian fleet at southeast end of channel.  Same storm wrecks the 200 Persian ships south of Euboea. 480
B76 8-311
480 ARISTIDES, with some troops from Salamis, lands on Psyttaleia (a small island between Salamis and Piraeus), kills some Persian troops. 480 DGRBM 3-1028
480 XERXES-I attacks Thermopylae again, unsuccessful. 480 B76 8-311
480 Thebans at Thermopylae surrender to Persians. 480 B76 8-311, LEWH 68, TTPC
480 Prior to the battle, 2 Spartans ARISTODEMOS and EURYTOS, are absent for disputed reasons.  Eurytos returns to Thermopylae, and is killed.  Aristodemos returns to Sparta.  The Spartans declare him "atimos".  "no man gave him light for his fire, no man spoke to him.  He was called Aristodemos the coward." 480 DGRBM 1-304
480 Son of Alaxandridas, LEONIDAS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 490, with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, killed.  Battle of THERMOPYLAE ends.  Bro CLEOMBROTOS succeeds to October. 480 B76 VI-152, MCAW 112, MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG, rcPl
480 CLEOMBROTOS Agiad king of Sparta, tries to defend Greece at Corinth.  Orders a wall to be built across the isthmus. 480 lvP
c.480 Temple of Apollo at DELPHI attacked by Persians.  Delphians seek safety on Mt. Parnassus, but are forbidden by Apollo to remove the treasures from his temple.  Only 60 Delphians remain behind.  When the Persians climb the rugged path leading to the shrine, and had already reached the temple of Athena Pronaea, thunder is heard, from the temple of Athena, and 2 huge crags roll down from the mountains, and crush many to death.  The Persians turn and flee, pursued by 2 warriors of superhuman size, whom the Delphians claim to be heroes Phylacus and Autonous, whose sanctuaries are near the spot. 480 DGRG 1-762, OCD 322
c.480 PLATAEA Boeotia sacked by Persians. 480 OCD 839
c.480 THEBES, under oligarchy, collaborates with Persians until 479. 480 OCD 1052
c.480 PHOCIS, west of Boeotia, destroyed by Persians. 480 CDCC 682
c.480 Boeotians, Phocians, and Locrians surrender to Persians. 480 LEWH 68, GHH
480 EURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, learns of defeat at Thermopylae, withdraws his 271 ships from Gulf of Artemisium to Saronic Gulf between Athens and Salamis.  It is boxed in by the superior Persian fleet. 480 B76 8-311, 344, LEWH 68, OCD 66, 112
480 Bronze Statues of tyranicides Harmodios and Aristogiton by Antenor, in Athens from 509, are carried off by Xerxes-I.  They end up in Susa until 331, and are returned to Athens in 330.  Meanwhile they will be replaced in 477. 480 CAH 4, DGRBM 2-350, OCD 112
480 Sept. ATHENS, including acropolis, burnt by Persians, who now occupy Attica. 480 B76 2-266, 19-1057, GHH, LEWH 68, MCAW 112, OHG, TToH
480 Sept. Themistocles sacrifices 3 Persian prisoners to Dionysus. 480 CDGRA 457
480 Persian fleet under HAKHAMANISH, bro of Xerxes-I, satrap of Egypt 485-?, attacks Greek fleet at noon.  Heavy losses both sides.  Greeks try to stay in narrow water. 480 B76 8-311
480 Sep. HAKHAMANISH gets false rumor that Greek fleet intends to withdraw from straits of Salamis to Gulf of Argolis, sends 200 ships to cut them off.  Greeks learn of it. 480 B76 8-311, WPOT 325
480 Sep. 21 BATTLE of SALAMISEURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, heads out to sea in a feigned retreat from Salamis.  Persian admiral thinks the Greek fleet is trying to escape, sails into narrow water.  Greek fleet returns and defeats them.  Over 1,000 Persian ships are rammed and sunk by 400 Greek shipsRemaining Persians flee, still outnumbering Greeks. 480 B76 8-311, 19-1057, CAH 4, CDCC 608, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 281, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 66, 112, 945, OHG, RAH 208, SHWC 64, TToH, TTPC, bk
479 CDCC 129
c.480 Greek fleet, still outnumbered by Persian fleet, chases it as far as Andros Island, then stops for fear of the Persians realizing the absurdity of their flight, and turning on them. 480 DGRBM 3-816
c.480 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, leads hoplites landing on islet of Psyttaleia (a small island between Salamis and Piraeus) against Persians, commands Athenian army at Plataea Boeotia, helps Themistocles rebuild walls of Athens. 480
CDCC 76, OCD 110
480 SALAMIS RESULTS:  Persians lose command of Aegean to Greeks.  Athenian general CIMON gains fame for valor. 480 OCD 945, TTPC
c.480 THEMISTOCLES made strategos autocrator, put in command of Athenian fleet until 479. 480 CAH 4-155, OCD 1053
c.480 CHERSONESE, under Persia from 493, comes under Athens until 411. 480 rcT
Oct. 2
SOLAR ECLIPSE V causes retreat of Cleombrotos from Piraeus.
"A prodigy had caused him [Cleombrotos] to bring his army home; for while he was offering sacrifice to know if he should march out against the Persian, the sun was suddenly darkened in mid sky."   (Herodotus: History 9-10)
480 Oct. 2
DGRBM 1-791, MCAW 113, hbar, nasaS
480 Oct. Son of Alaxandridas, CLEOMBROTOS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from August, dies, probably of natural causes.  Neph, son of Leonidas, PLEISTARCHOS succeeds to 459, but he is young, so Cleombrotos' son PAUSANIAS is regent until 478. 480 B76 VII-809, CDCC 653, DGRBM 3-412, MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG
c.480 GREEK ARCHAIC Period ends.  Began 750
CLASSICAL PERIOD begins until 323.
EARLY CLASSICAL begins until 450.
500 B76 I-486, 8-334, 19-288, 291
500 or 480 CDCC 193 480 PW 16, wikArG
c.480 ANAXAGORAS, philosopher of Clazomenae Ionia, age 20, probably came to Greece with Xerxes-I's army, settles in Athens 464. 480 B76 I-345, CDΦ 24, Dur 2-339, MCAW 113, OCD 61
480 or 456 EoΦ 1-115
c.480 ONOMACRITOS, compiler, collector, and forger of oracles formerly at the court of Pisistratos, dies. 480 wikOn
c.480 HYPSICHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 481, ends.  CALLIADES succeeds until 479. 480 wikEA
c.480 Poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos Island flourishes, probably in Greece. 480 LEWH 76,     485-50 OHG
467 Dur 2-244
c.480 Hoplite sacrificingA hoplite offers a sacrifice before an altar painted on a Greek kylix. 480 wikAl

Photo G.dallorto
Macedonia Thrace
480 late XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 leaves ⅓ of his army under MARDONIUS in Boeotia, takes ⅔ to Thrace, leaves ⅓ under ARTABAZUS in Thrace, withdraws with the remaining third to Sardis. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, GHH, LEWH 68, OCD 805
c.480 ARTABANUS, Persian commander of Parthian and Chorasmian contingents, accompanies Xerxes as far as Hellespont, then returns to Pallene (west promontory of Chalcidice), where cities had rebelled against Persians. 480 DGRBM 1-368
c.480 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, besieged by Artabanus until 479. 480 DGRBM 1-368
c.480 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Persians from 492, back under Thracians until 339. 480 rcEB
c.480 GREEK POTTERY:  Attic vase painting, at its peak from 500 to now, begins begins decline until 330.  The cramped surface prevents painters from keeping up with the advance of naturalism in the major arts.  Occasional attempts at perspective and depth detract from the shape of the vessel.  A saccharine sentimentality and triviality of subject matter and treatment increases. 480 B76 14-900
kylix kylix
DURIS (Douris) Athenian red figure vase painter, flourishes.  250-300 vases are ascribed to him.  Majority of these are kylixes.  Left: Peleus abducts Thetis, who shape-shifts into a lioness.  Right shows his signature "hook collarbone".
500-460 CGS 642, wikDVP

left Jastrow
right Jastrow
banquetBanquet in a vase painting by Duris.  The mistress of the house, helped by slaves, usually saw to buying provisions and food preparation.  When a man had no guests, his wife might dine with him, seated on a chair while he reclined on a couch. 500-460 CGS 642
c.480 POTIDAEA Chalcidice besieged 3 months by Artabazus until 479 unsuccessfully. 480 OCD 870
no date: DGRBM 1-368
c.479 ChalcidiceOLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, taken by Artabanus.  Compels inhabitants to leave, then butchers them.  Gives the town to Chalcidians, under Persia until ? 479
B76 VII-528, OCD 751
no date:
DGRBM 1-368
479 MARDONIUS, Persian general, with Thessalian allies breaks up camp, moves south. 479 GHH
479 ATTAGINOS, a leader at Thebes, holds a banquet for Mardonius and 50 Persian officers before Plataea. 479 DGRBM 1-409
479 MARDONIUS, Persian general, with Thessalian allies in Boeotia, tries unsuccessfully to talk Athenians out of resisting, invades Attica. 479 LEWH 68, OCD 805
479 ATHENS, burnt 480, re-occupied by MARDONIUS. 479 DGRBM,
LEWH 68, OCD 805
c.479 CALLIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 480, ends.  XANTHIPPOS succeeds until 478. 479 wikEA
479 ARCHONSHIP and other state offices, restricted to certain families from 1068, opened to all Athenians by a law of Aristides. 479 CDGRA 65 478 GHH
479 spring MARDONIUS and Thessalian allies, raid as far as Isthmus of Corinth, camp near Thebes. 479 B76 8-311, 350
479 MARDONIUS, makes peace proposal to Athens.  Senator Lycidas advises Athenians to take him seriously, and is stoned to death with his wife and children. 479 DGRBM 2-844
479 PHOCIS joins Mardonius against Greeks. no date: wikΦcs
479 While the Greeks wait for favorable signs from their sacrifices, CALLICRATES, handsomest of the Spartans, is killed by a Persian arrow. 479 DGRBM 1-569
479 mid BoeotiaAt request of Athenians, Spartan general PAUSANIAS, with 35,000 hoplites and 50,000 support troops including Chalcidians advances north into foothills near PLATAEA Boeotia.  He then sees his position vulnerable to Persian cavalry and difficult to supply.  He orders a withdrawal, which is disoderly and scattered.  MARDONIUS attacks.  Pausanias halts on high ground near Plataea, charges down in tight formation toward Asopos river and overwhelms Persians.  MARDONIUS is defeated and killed by Spartan Aeimnestos.  Athenian commander Aristides is not mentioned as doing anything.  Persian army and Thessalian allies are routed.  Mardonius leaves Greece.
Same day as battle of Mycale.
479 B76 I-515, 712, VII-809, 8-311, 340, 350, CAH 4, 5, CDCC 6, 129, 687, DGRA 888, DGRBM 1-27, 294, 3-157, 1028, DGRG 1-241, Dur 2-242, GHH, GRG 281, IDB 4-922, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 647, 792, 805, 839, OHG, RAH 211, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, wikPlat
479 ARISTODEMOS the coward of Thermopylae displays extravagant feats of valor at Plataea, redeeming himself before being killed. 479 DGRBM 1-304, GHH
479 ARTABAZOS, with 40,000 Persians, flees from Plataea thru Phocis, Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace to Byzantium. 479 DGRBM 1-368, GHH
c.479 ABDERA Thrace, under Persia from 482, comes under Athens until ?. 479 rcSB2
c.479 ELEUTHERIA, feast of liberty, established by Greeks after Plataea to thank Zeus Eleutherios "deliverer".  To be held annually at Plataea. 479 DGRA 454
c.479 Strategos ARISTIDES commands Athenian troops at PLATAEA Boeotia. 479 B76 18-270 CDCC 76
c.479 ELIS allies with Sparta against Persia until 471. 479 B76 III-853
c.479 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, under Thebes from 529, dissolved until 457. 479 B76 8-345, rcSB3
c.479 PLATAEA Boeotia, allied to Athens from 519, independent until 431. 479 rcSB3
c.479 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 495-50, reluctant ally of Persia, gives military info to Athenians. no date: OCD 39
c.479 MACEDONIA under Persia from 492, independent. 479 GHH
c.479 XANTHIPPOS becomes Athenian general, sails to Hellespont. 479 DGRBM 1-372, OCD 1140
c.479 ChersoneseSESTOS, Persian HQs in Chersonese under governor Artayctes, besieged by Spartans under Athenian Xanthippos until spring 478. 479
DGRBM 1-372, RAH 211
c.479 Athenian statesman CIMON leads embassy to Sparta. 479 OCD 240
c.479 ChalcidiceARTABAZUS, besieging POTIDAEA Chalcidice from 480, gives up, withdraws to Thessaly, joins Mardonius.  Potidaea comes under Athens until 443. 479 OCD 870 no date: DGRBM 1-368
c.479 POTIDAEA Chalcidice under Persia from 490, allies with Athens until 443. 479 OCD 870, rcSB2
c.479 ACANTHOS Chalcidice under Persia from 490, allies with Athens until 424. 479 rcSB2
c.479 THEBES, chief City of Boeotian league from 520, having collaborated with Persians from 480, besieged by Greeks, who demand surrender of Attaginos and other Medizers.  Thebes refuses, and falls to Greeks 20 days later.  Attaginos escapes.  Thebes oligarchy is abolished and replaced by a democracy.  Under Athens until 427. 479 DGRBM 1-409, LEWH 68, OCD 1052, rcSB3
c.479 PERSIAN WARS from 492 end.
2nd PERSIAN WAR from 480 ends.
479 CDCC 646, 938, OCD 140, RAI3, rcSB2
c.479 THRACE, under Persians from 492, independent until 341. 479 CDCC 885, GHH     475 Dur 2-245
c.479 LEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, commands Greek fleet at Aegina. 478 DGRBM 2-761
c.479 Congress at Plataea Boeotia. 479 OCD 590
c.479 Oath of Plataea:  Athens anti-Persian oath sworn by the Greek allies.  Medizers to be banished.  Displaced Ionians to be given land of banished Medizers. 479 CAH 4
c.479 THEMISTOCLES Athenian fleet commander from 480, succeeded by XANTHIPPOS son of Ariphron until ?. 479 DGRBM 3-1286
c.479 THEMISTOCLES, democratic leader of Athenian merchants, supported by Aristides, begins rebuilding walls of Athens and the Piraeus despite Spartan protest.  Finishes 478. 479 B76 8-351, LEWH 68
late 479 CDCC 878
c.479 Spartans besieging SESTOS in Thracian Chersonese leave Athenian XANTHIPPOS and Ionians in charge of the siege, return to Sparta. 479 LEWH 68     478 B76 8-350
477 OCD 1140
479/8 Themistocles visits Sparta to quell rumors that the Athenians were building new walls.  The Spartans believe him, not knowing that Themistocles is just trying to gain time.  In the end, Themistocles admits it. 479/8 lvG
Macedonia Thrace
c.479/8 Chersonese, under Persians from 494, partly conquered by Athenian XANTHIPPOS.  Torn between Greeks and Persians until 465. no date: OCD 229
478 SESTOS, Persian HQs in Chersonese, under Persians from ?, taken by Athenian XANTHIPPOS and IoniansPersian governor Artayctes and family are executed by the will of the people, specifically for sacrilege during office.  Xanthippos returns to Athens. 479/8 IDB 2-596, OCD 981
478 DGRBM 1-372, 3-1286, 1307, GHH, LEWH 68, OCD 1140
478 Herodotus'  History  ends with siege of Sestos. 478 DGRBM
c.478 BYZANTIUM, under Persians from 494, taken by Spartan admiral PAUSANIAS until 475. 479 CDCC 230, 654, LEWH 68
478 B76 VII-809, 8-352, 9-1069, CAH 5, OCD 186, 319, 792, 805, lvG, rcT     477/6 MCAW 112
c.478 Spartan admiral PAUSANIAS in Byzantium behaves arrogantly, provokes Ionian allies to mutiny, charged with collaborating with Artabazus satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, recalled to Sparta for trial. 478 B76 8-352, CAH 5, CDCC 654, OCD 792, lvG
c.478 Spartan PAUSANIAS, regent for Agiad king Pleistarchos from 480, acquitted of charges in Sparta, but loses regency.  Returns to Byzantium. 478 CDCC 654, lvG
no date: LEWH 68, OCD 792
c.478 XANTHIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 479, ends.  TIMOSTHENES succeeds until 477. 478 wikEA
c.478 PHORMIS, comedy writer, flourishes.  1st to introduce actors with robes reaching to the ankles, and to ornament the stage with skins dyed purple. 478 wikΦr 470 GHH
c.478 ATHENS rebuilt and refortified larger than before despite Spartan opposition. 479 B76 2-266     478 GHH, MCAW 113, OHG, TToH
Charioteer Charioteer
Bronze CHARIOTEER set up at Delphi to commemorate victory of tyrant Polyzalos of Gela in Sicily and his chariot in the Pythian Games of 478 or 74.  The original included the chariot, at least 4 horses and possibly 2 grooms.  Some fragments of the horses were found with the statue.
478 CAH 4
478 or 74 wikCD

left RaminusFalcon
right Gunnar Bach
c.478 PINDAR  Isthmian Ode 5  honors Aegina at Salamis. 478 CAH 4
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, helped by CIMON, given command of Athenian naval forces. 478 OCD 110, lvG
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, helped by CIMON, influences Greeks of Aegean and Ionia to side with Athens against Sparta. 478 OCD 110, 240
478/7 CDCC 76
c.478 Athenian naval supremacy begins until ?. 478 CDGRA 70
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian commander of allied Greeks, gets together with allies, including Cimon, and plans a new league, "persuades" Athens to lead it, invites all interested Greeks to attend a meeting on DELOS Island in Cyclades. 478 B76 4-617 477 B76 8-351
c.478/7 DELIAN LEAGUE formed as defense against Persians.  Includes most Aegean islands and Greek cities of Thrace and Ionia.  Its general assembly is on DELOS.  Aristides fixes quota for each contributory state.  Allies are autonomous at first.  Each member gets an equal vote.  Treasury is on Delos until 454. 478 OHG 40, PW 16, TAWH 17, TToH     478/7 BCoC 330, CAH 5, CDCC 76, LEWH 69, OCD 319, 495     spring 477 OCD 110, 140
477 DGRG 1-759, Dur 2-244, RAH
c.477 EUBOEA (except for Carystos 472) joins Delian League until 411. guess
c.477 CIMON Athenian admiral, takes Persian forts along coast of Thrace, except for Doriscos. 477
c.477 HELLENOTAMIAE, treasurers, appointed by Athenians to receive contributions from allied states because they can't trust Pausanias. 477
DGRA 590
c.477 TIMOSTHENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 478, ends.  ADIMANTOS succeeds until 476. 477 GHH, wikEA

ThessalyLEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, leads a combined Greek force against Persian sympathizing aristocracies in Thessaly.  Takes Pagasae and Pherae, but fails to take Larissa. 478 CAH 5 477 OCD 596 476
B76 VI-157
c.477 KRITIOS (Critias), Athenian sculptor, probably a pupil of Antenor, teacher of Myron, flourishes. early 5th wikKrt
c.477 A new set of bronze statues of tyranicides Harmodios and Aristogiton are designed by Kritios and Nesiotes in Athens to replace those taken by Xerxes-I in 480.  Only Roman copies survive. 478 MCAW 113
477 DGRA 1063, DGRBM 2-350, OCD 112, 299
c.476 THORAX, king of Thessaly from 500, ends.  ECHECRADIDAS-II succeeds until 460. 476 rcSB2
c.476 Olympic games now include victors from Massilia Gaul to Sinope on Black Sea. 476 Dur 2-213
c.476 ADIMANTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 477, ends.  PHAEDON succeeds until 475. 476 GHH, wikEA
c.476 LEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, charged with bribery at Sparta, convicted.  Escapes condemnation, banished to Tegea Arcadia.  Grandson ARCHIDAMOS-II succeeds until 427. 477 lvG     477/6 lvG
476 OCD 596
475 lvG
c.476 THEMISTOCLES, archon from 487, ends.  CIMON succeeds until 462. 476 rcSB3
c.476 CIMON made commander of Athenian forces. 476 BCoC 327
c.476 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 2,  Nemean Ode 1  476 CAH 5
c.476 Pindar & Bacchylides rivalry peaks. 476 wikBc
c.476 PHRYNICHOS tragic dramatist of Athens, wins his last 1st prize.   Phoenissae  wins City Dionysia.  About victory over Persians at Salamis. 476 B76 VII-973, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 3-359     476/5 CAH 4-172
c.476 Bacchylides  Ode 5  celebrating Hieron's first victory at Olympian Games. 476 CAH 4, 5, wikBc
c.476 PINDAR  Olympian Ode 1  celebrating Hieron's first victory at Olympian Games, but advises the tyrant of need for moderation in personal conduct. 476 CAH 4, 5, wikBc
c.476 PINDAR  Olympian Odes 2 & 3  in honor of Theron. 476 CAH 4, 5
c.476 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos Island, in Athens from 490, goes to Syracuse, in Sicily until death 468. 476 OCD 991
c.476 CIMON Athenian admiral, begins Thracian campaign until 475, besieges EION on coast of Thrace, thru the winter. 476 CAH 5, LEWH 69, lvG
c.476 HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse wins a chariot race at Olympia, noteworthy only because he made such a big deal of it, commissioning artists to commemorate it. 476 CAH 5, OHG 120
c.476 Greek poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos goes to Sicily at invitation of Hieron-I. 476
OCD 158
c.476 Simonides gains the prize in the dithyrambic chorus. 476 DGRBM 3
c.475 MINYAE tribe around Lepreon on west Coast of Peloponnese is destroyed by people of Ellis. 475 OCD 693
c.475 EION on coast of Thrace, under king Boges from ?, Persian vassal from 480, besieged by Athenian admiral CIMON from 476, falls.  Boges kills his family, then burns his home, and himself to death. 476 DGRBM 1-498 475 CAH 5, lvG
c.475 BYZANTIUM, under Spartan PAUSANIAS from 478, taken by Athenian CIMON.  Joins Delian League until 440. 477 B76 VII-809     475 OCD 475, 792
c.475 PHAEDON, eponymous archon of Athens from 476, ends.  DROMOCLIDES succeeds until 474. 475 wikEA
c.475 Spartan PAUSANIAS expelled by CIMON, goes to Colonae in the Troad until 470. 476 MCAW 112 475 OCD 792
lekythos with Heracles and Atlas
Marie-Lan Nguyen
lekythos with warrior holding spear under arrow attack.
{{PD-US}}   lekythos with 3 warriors, 2 of them hoploi
Marsyas   lekythos with Circe & Odysseus
The ATHENA Painter flourishes, specializing in black figure on white ground lekythoi.
490-60 wikAthP
c.474 DROMOCLIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 475, ends.  ACESTORIDES succeeds until 473. 474 wikEA
c.474/3 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 3 . 474/3 CAH 5
c.473 ACESTORIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 474, ends.  MENON succeeds until 472. 473 wikEA
c.472 77th OLYMPIAD is the last one in which all games are on 1 day.  Henceforth they are spread over 4 days. 472
B76 2-274
c.473 Athenian operations against Carystos in Euboea until 472. 473 OCD 240
c.472 CARYSTOS Euboea suppressed by Athenian navy, probably under Cimon. 472 OCD 240 470 lvG
c.472 CARYSTOS Euboea is 1st city forced to join Delian League. 472 B76 III-447, 8-352, OCD 319
c.472 MENON, eponymous archon of Athens from 473, ends.  CHARES succeeds until 471. 472 wikEA
c.472 AESCHYLUS play  Persians  about the victory at Salamis wins 1st place at City Dionysia.  Supports Themistocles.
"When a man takes the road to destruction, the gods help him along."
472 B76 1-148, 8-352, CAH 4, 5, CDCC 16, 631, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, MCAW 115, MNDQ 283, OCD 17, OHG 184, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG
c.472/1 CIMON gets THEMISTOCLES ostracised.  Themistocles goes to Argos, where he continues an anti-Spartan policy, until the Spartans tell Athens that Themistocles was negotiating with Xerxes-I. 472 CDCC 878     472/1 lvG
471 BCoC 331, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1029, GHH, LEWH 69, MCAW 112, OCD 1053, OHG, TToH, bk 470 OCD 762
c.471 ELIS in Peloponnese, ally of Sparta from 479, spurns Sparta, forms a democratic government. 471 B76 III-853, LEWH 68
c.471 2ND ACTOR (besides the protagonist and chorus) introduced to Athenian stage by Aeschylus.  No directors yet!  Either Aeschylus directs or actors wing it. 471 TToH
no date:
B76 10-1091
c.471 CHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 472, ends.  PRAXIERGOS succeeds until 470. 471 wikEA
c.471 TEGEA Arcadia, under Sparta from 550, defects to ARGOS. 471 LEWH 68, OCD 1040
c.471 Spartans, believing Themistocles privy to the designs of Pausanias (dies 470), send agents to Athens to accuse Themistocles, now at Argos, of negotiating with Xerxes-I.  Athenians convert the ostracism into a death sentence, and the Argives extradite Themistocles, who escapes and flees to Corcyra. 471 LEWH 69
466 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1029
no date: lvG
c.471 Corcyrans fear that keeping Themistocles will get them the hostility of Athens and Sparta.  They take Themistocles to the mainland.  Being followed by his pursuers, he flees to the house of Admetus, king of the Molossi.  Admetus sends him to Pydna, where Themistocles boards a merchant ship bound for Ionia.  The ship is carried by weather to the Athenian fleet blockading Naxos.  Themistocles tells the captain that if he did not carry Themistocles off safely, Themistocles would tell the Athenians that the captain was helping him escape for money.  The captain sails him to Ephesus.  Themistocles remains in Anatolia until death 460. 466 DGRBM 3-1029, GHH
c.471 3RD ACTOR introduced to Athenian stage by Sophocles. 471 TToH
c.470? CORCYRA, independent from 585, comes back under Corinth until 434. guess
c.470 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 1,  Olympian 12,  Isthmian 2.
Ode 1 
celebrates Hieron-I's victory in Pythian games, plus moral advice to rule wisely.
470 OHG, wikBc 470/69 CAH 5
c.470 Delphi and Corinth establish 4 year contests in painting as part of the Pythian and Isthmian games. 470 Dur 2-317
c.470 THOLOS "circle" a round temple 18m diameter built at the southwest agora in Athens by Cimon, as a dining hall for the boule (senators).  Functions as an all purpose venue, with a dining hall and sleeping quarters for some officials.  The depository for standard weights and measures, where merchants are required to test their measuring devices. 500 wikAGUM
470 GHH, wikθls
c.470 PRAXIERGOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 471, ends.  DEMOTION succeeds until 469. 470 wikEA
c.470 Spartan PAUSANIAS, in the Troad from 475, recalled to Sparta, again tried for collaborating with Persians, again acquitted. returns to Sparta 471 lvG    470 OCD 792, lvG
convicted: MCAW 117
c.470 Spartan PAUSANIAS is suspected of instigating a helot rebellion.  To escape arrest, he flees to temple of Athena of the Brazen House, where he is besieged and starved to death.  DORCIS succeeds him. 471 DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 68 470 OCD 792
dies 467 DGRBM 3-412
466 CAH 5
c.470 ELEA region in south-central Elis, under aristocracy from 7th cen., comes under democracy until 323. 470 rcPl
c.470 Spartans try and fail to subdue TEGEA Arcadia. 470 LEWH 68
c.470 After draw battle at TEGEA, all ARCADIA except MANTINEA joins anti-Spartan alliance. 470 LEWH 68
c.470 TIRYNS destroyed by ARGOS. 470 OCD 1079
470/69 Bacchylides  Ode 4  celebrates Hieron-I's triumph in chariot race at Pythian Games. 470 wikBc 470/69 CAH 5
c.469 ARGOS crushes anti-Spartan allies at Dipea and recovers hegemony. 469 LEWH 68-9
c.469 DEMOTION, eponymous archon of Athens from 470, ends.  APSEPHION succeeds until 468. 469 wikEA
c.469 PERICLES makes 1st public appearance in Athens. 469 GHH
c.469 LEOTYCHIDAS-II dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 491 (with Pleistarchos from 480), banished to Tegea Arcadia from 476, dies.  His house at Sparta is leveled.  Grandson (acting king from 476) ARCHIDAMOS-II succeeds to 427. 477/6 lvG     469 B76 I-489, DGRBM 1-266, 2-761, MRDK, OCD 98, 596, 1007, rcPl, wikKS
c.469 TEGEA Arcadia allies with Sparta until 369. 469 rcPl
c.469 2nd Temple of Zeus at Olympia begun by architect Libon of Elis until 457.  Made of coarse local shell conglomerate coated with white stucco.  Has 6 columns across front and 13 on sides. 472 wikTZ     470 CDCC 866 469 CDCC 69, CDGRA 60
460 MCAW 121
c.469 Supposed bones of THESEUS brought from Scyros to Athens by Cimon.  A tomb/temple of Theseus is begun northwest of Athens.  Built of Penthelic marble on an artificial foundation of quadrangular limestone blocks.  Finished 450. 469 CDGRA 629, DGRBM 3-1100, DGRG 1-28
468 DGRBM 3-245
c.469 THESEIA festival instituted in honor of Theseus. 469 DGRA 1126
c.468 MYCENAE destroyed by Argives. Argolis 468 DGRA 81, DGRBM,
DGRG 1-203-4, GHH
c.432 fall TIRYNS, HYSIAE, and MIDEA just east of Argos destroyed by Argives. 468 DGRG 1-203-4
c.468 CERYNIA Achaea abandoned to Argives. 468 DGRG 1-593
c.468 APSEPHION, eponymous archon of Athens from 469, ends.  THEAGENIDES succeeds until 467. 468 GHH, wikEA
c.468 SOPHOCLES of Colonos (age 28) wins City Dionysia play contest over Aeschylus 1st time.  Cimon is judge. 468 B76 1-148, 17-15, CAH 5, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-41, 3-866, Dur 2-383, 391, MCAW 117, OCD 18, OHG, TTPC     466 GHH
c.468 Athenian statesman ARISTIDES dies. 468 DGRBM, Dur 2-713, GHH, MCAW 119
c.468 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, rebelling against Delian League from 475, subdued, forced by Athens to destroy its walls, surrender its fleet, and pay tribute, causing resentment in all Greece. 470 CDCC 610
469 MCAW 116
468RAH 215
467 LEWH 69, OCD 319
c.468 HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse 478-67 wins another chariot race, and this time comissions only Bacchylides to flatter him, apparently tired of Pindar's moralizing. 468 wikBc
c.468/7 Bacchylides  Ode 3  on Hieron-I's current race victory. 468/7 CAH 5
c.468/7 PINDAR writes  Olympian Ode 4 . 468/7 CAH 5
c.468/7  METEORITE  falls on the Aegospotami River in the Chersonese. 468/7 OCD 61
467 HALLEY'S COMET and associated meteor shower recorded in China and Greece. 467 GHCC, wikHC
c.467 CHERSONESE, torn between Greeks and Persians from 479/8, Persians expelled by CIMON.  Joins Delian League until 404. 467 GHH
no date: OCD 229, 240
c.467 THEAGENIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 468, ends.  LYSISTRATOS succeeds until 466. 467 wikEA
c.467 AESCHYLUS produces his  Oedipus trilogy , of which only  Seven Against Thebes  survives.
"The worst enemy is one that fears the gods."
467 B76 1-148, CAH 5, CDCC 16, Dur 2-383, MCAW 117, MNDQ 341, OCD 17, 109, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.466 LYSISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 467, ends.  LYSANIAS succeeds until 465. 466 wikEA
c.465 Ennea Hodoi (later Amphipolis), on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice defies another Athenian attempt to colonize it by a force of 10,000 under Leagros and Sophanes.  All are killed in battle by the Thracians at Drabescus. 465 CAH 5, 6-452, DGRBM 2-726, 3-865, DGRG 1-126, OCD 54, lvG     464 bk
c.465 LYSANIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 466, ends.  LYSITHEOS succeeds until 464. 465 wikEA
c.465 Athens begins policies aimed at converting the voluntary Delian League into an empire dominated by Athens. 465 SHWC 66
c.465 Λ COMEDY V gains enough respect to be granted a chorus at Athenian festivals.  OLD COMEDY Period begins until 400.  Political satire and groin-centered inuendo represented mostly by Aristophanes. 465 Dur 2-231 458 DGRA 344
c.465/4 Egypt rebels against Persia until 464.  Athens sends troops to help Egypt, but rebellion is crushed. 465 LEWH 53 464 MCAW 116
c.465/4 SPARTA promises to help Thasos island against Athenians, but is hit by EARTHQUAKE.  5 houses left standing; more than 20,000 persons killed, huge masses of rock roll down from the highest peaks of Taygetos. 469/8 or 465/4 OCD 98
465 B76 8-352, OCD 1007
464 B76 I-489, DGRBM, DGRG 1-1015, GHH, LEWH 69, OCD 676, RAH 216
c.465/4 MESSENIA, under Sparta from ?, uses earthquake as opportunity to rebel.  3rd MESSENIAN WAR begins until 461. 465 OCD 1007     465/4 B76 VI-822, CAH 5 464 B76 VI-581, DGRA 887, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 69, lvG, bk
c.464 LYSITHEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 465, ends.  ARCHIDEMIDES succeeds until 463. 464 wikEA
c.464 MANTINEA sides with Sparta against helots. 464 B76 VI-581
c.464 MESSENIAN HELOTS, defeated by Archidamos of Sparta, retreat to the fortress on Mt. Ithome.  Spartans besiege them until 461.  464 Dur 2-244, LEWH 69, lvG
c.464 ANAXAGORAS, philosopher of Clazomenae Ionia, in Greece from 480, settles in Athens.  1st philosopher to live in Athens. 480 GHH     464 KPHP 15, OHG     462 Dur 2-244
456 CAH 5
c.463 CIMON, besieging THASOS Island from 465, returns to Athens.  He is charged by EPHIALTES with accepting a bribe from ALEX-I of Macedon, prosecuted by Pericles, and acquitted. 463 B76 14-67, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240, 800
c.463 ARCHIDEMIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 464, ends.  TLEPOLEMOS succeeds until 462. 463 wikEA
c.463 Athenians determine to overcome Persian influence in Cyprus, build 200 ships. 463
Sdl 5-187
c.463 POLYGNOTOS of Thasos, painter, moves to Athens (probably brought by Cimon).  Remains in the area of Athens until 426.  Painting is fully developed in the art of immitation. 463 DGRA 908, DGRBM 3-466
462 DGRBM 3-463
c.463 AESCHYLUS play  Suppliant Women . 463 B76 1-149, CAH 5
466-59 CDCC 16
463 Apr 30 SOLAR ECLIPSE inspires an ejaculation from Pindar to fellow Thebans.
"Beam of the Sun!  O thou that seest from afar, what wilt thou be devising?  O mother of mine eyes!  O star supreme, reft from us in the daytime!  Why has thou perplexed the power of man and the way of wisdom, by rushing forth on a darksome track?  Art thou bringing on us some new and strange disaster?  Yet by Zeus, I implore thee, thou swift driver of steeds!  So thou, O queen!  Change this world-wide portent into some painless blessing for Thebes ... But art thou bringing a sign of some war, or wasting of produce, or an unspeakably violent snow-storm, or fatal faction, or again, some overflowing of the sea on the plain, or frost to bind the earth, or heat of the south wind streaming with raging rain?  Or wilt thou, by deluging the land, cause the race of men to begin anew?  I in no wise lament whatever I shall suffer with the rest! ... God can cause unsullied light to spring out of black night.  He can also shroud in a dark cloud of gloom the pure light of day."
463 Apr 30 hbar
c.463/2 Spartans call on allies, including Athens, for help in siege of Messenians on Mt. Ithome. 462 B76 4-617, CAH 5
no date: B76 8-352, LEWH 69
c.462 TLEPOLEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 463, ends.  CONON succeeds until 461. 462 wikEA
c.462 EPHIALTES, Athenian statesman, refuses to help Spartans during helot rebellion. 462
OCD 387
c.462 Athenian general CIMON persuades Athenians, over Ephialtes objection, to help Sparta against helots. 462 B76 III-918, 4-617
no date: OCD 240
c.462 Athenian CIMON leads an army of hoplites to help Sparta attack Messenians on Mt. Ithome.  Spartans suspect his motives and send him home in disgrace.  Athens transfers friendship from Sparta to Argos. 464 DGRBM, GHH     463 bk 462 CAH 5, CDCC 485, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240
c.462 Athens / Sparta alliance from ?, ends. 462 LEWH 69
c.462 ARGOS subdues TIRYNS and MYCENAE. Argolis 469 LEWH 68-9
464 DGRG 1-1057
c.462 MYCENAE, independent of Argos from ?, reconquered by Argos.  Town is destroyed, but citadel remains. 464 DGRG 1-1057 464/3 CAH 5
462 MCAW 116
c.462 MEGARA, having border war with Corinth, appeals to Sparta unsuccessfully, then to Athens, which allies with Megara 460. 462 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.462 CIMON, archon from 476, ends.  EPHIALTES succeeds until 461. 462 rcSB3
c.462 ARCHESILAUS-IV employs PINDAR of Thebes to celebrate his victory in the chariot race at Delphi. 462 OCD 95
c.462 EPHIALTES, leader of Athenian democrats, now dominant in Athens, assisted by Pericles, limits the oligarchic Council of the Areopagos, in favor of the Ecclesia (popular assembly), the Boule (council), and the law courts. 462 B76 1-148, Dur 2-390, wikArpg
463/1 MCAW 117     462/1 B76 III-918, CAH 5, 6-565, CDCC 630, CDGRA 70, OCD 103, 387, 800
461 GHH, LWEH 69
c.462 AREOPAGOS, the high Court of Appeal for Athenian criminal and civil cases, located at the Areopagos (Ares rock) north-west of the Acropolis, is deprived of all powers except jurisdiction over homicide cases.  Its other powers are divided between the COUNCIL of 500, ASSEMBLY, and popular law courts.  Judges are paid, but selected by lot from a group accessible to all adult males. 462 B76 1-148, Dur 2-390, wikArpg     463/1 MCAW 117
462/1 CAH 6-572, CDCC 630, OCD 103, 387, 800
461 LEWH 69   458 DGRA 128
462/1 Democracy in Athens, compromized from at least 487, reestablished until 411 under Ephialtes and Pericles.  It is aggressive against Sparta and Persia, and exploits its allies. 462 CDCC 652, bk
462/1 OCD 480
c.461 Athens / Sparta relations, break down. 461 B76 III-447
c.461 CONON, eponymous archon of Athens from 462, ends.  EUTHIPPOS succeeds until 460. 461 wikEA
c.461 Oligarch CIMON, son of Miltiades, charged with benevolence to Sparta, ostracized from Athens until 451. 462 CDCC 652     462/1 lvG
461 B76 4-617, 8-352, BCoC 332, CAH 4-153, 5, CDCC 485, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240, 319, 762, OHG, RAH 217, TToH, bk
c.461 Athens / Sparta war begins until 446. 461 lvG
c.461 ARGOS sides with Athens against Sparta. 461 B76 I-506,
OCD 106     460 bk
c.461 Construction of LONG WALLS from the PIRAEUS to Athens begins.  Finished 457. 461 OCD 619, TTOH 457 GHH
c.461 3rd MESSENIAN WAR with Sparta from 464 ends.  Messenians besieged on Mt. Ithome from 464 surrender to Spartans.  They are given safe conduct by Tolmides to Naupactos in Aetolia. 461 LEWH 69
460 OCD 1007, lvG 456 CAH 5
c.461 EPHIALTES dies.  Archon from 476, leader of democratic party and dominant man in Athens, murdered by an oligarch.  PERICLES succeeds (age 33) to 429. 461 B76 14-67, CAH 5, Dur 2-248, MCAW 116, OCD 387, SHWC 58, bk, rcSB3     456 DGRBM 2-25
no date: LEWH 69
c.460 ECHECRADIDAS-II, king of Thessaly from 476, ends.  ORESTES succeeds until 453. 460 rcSB2
c.460 EUTHIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 461, ends.  PHRASICLES succeeds until 459. 460 wikEA
c.460 MEGARA, in Peloponnesian League from ?, but having border war with Corinth, defects to Athenian League until 447. 460 bk, rcSB3 459 CAH 6-488
c.460 Ennea Hodoi, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice defies an attempt by 10,000 Athenians to colonize it. 460 IDB 1-121
c.460 OdryssiansODRYSIAN kingdom of Thrace begins in Maritsa Valley.  This is 1st known state in Thrace.  TERES is 1st king until 445. 480 frH, rcSB2, vrb 469 GHH
460 wikLRTD, wikTrs1
450 B76 2-615
c.460 Athens sends 200 ships to CyprusINAROS of Libya intercepts them and offers a better deal helping him against the Persian satrap. 460 B76 8-354, DGRBM, LEWH 69, MCAW 120, OCD 319, WPOT 327     459 CAH 5
c.460 THUCYDIDES son of Melesias becomes leader of Athenian conservatives (rich people) until 443. no date: OCD 1067
c.460 Some Helots of Messenia, sick of Spartan oppression, leave the Peloponnese and settle as exiles north of Corinthian Gulf until 371. 460
B76 VI-822
c.460 At request of Megara, Athens decides to help Megara against Corinth.
1st PELOPONNESIAN WAR, Athens, Megara, Argos, Thessaly vs. Corinth, Epidauros begins until 446.  Sparta does not enter until 457.
461 B76 III-447, CDCC 938, OHG     460 B76 8-354, CDCC 100, LEWH 69, OCD 1007, OHG 142, RAH 228, rcSB3
c.460 HIPPOCRATES of Chios Island, mathematician, flourishes in Athens.
Writes  ELEMENTS of GEOMETRY  V, the 1st known book on geometry.
Says a cube can be doubled if curves can be found with properties expressed in continuous proportion: a/x = x/y = y/2a.
(See Thales 600, Mahavira 468, Hippocrates 450, Hippasus 445)
460 B76 V-56
440 Dur 2-338 430 BHM 63 470-00 OCD 519
no date: OCD 654-5
c.460 NEMEAN GAMES, athletic and musical competitions in honor of Zeus at his Nemean sanctuary at Argolis, open to all Greeks from 573, sponsored by Cleonae from ?, now sponsored by Argos until ?. 460
B76 VII-249
c.460 AESCHYLUS produces  Prometheus Bound . 460 Dur 2-244, 386, TToH
c.460 DAMON of Athens flourishes, and speaks on music.  His teaching is mainly oral, but he incorporates his doctrines in a speech to the Areopagus. 460 sctx
c.460 PAINT:  Yellow ochre pigment is 1st used in painting by Polygnotos and Micon at Athens. 460 DGRA 321
c.459 Pericles sends 200 Athenian ships to Egypt to help Libyan prince INAROS against the Persians. 460 OCD 319     459 Dur 2-437, MCAW 120, OCD 805
c.459 PHRASICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 460, ends.  PHILOCLES succeeds until 458. 459 wikEA
c.459 Son of Leonidas, PLEISTARCHOS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 480, with Archidamos-II from 469, dies.  Minor son (or son of Pausanias) PLEISTOANAX succeeds to 445.  Uncle Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotos, commands army. 459 CDCC 690, OCD 1007, lvG
458 DGRBM 3-412, MRDK, rcPl
c.459 Corinth fights Athens until ?. 459 OCD 290     458 TToH
c.459 Athenians defeated by Corinthians and Epidaurians at Halieis on southeast coast of Argolis. 459 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.459 Athens / Aegina Island war begins.  Aegina is aided by Peloponnesians. 459 MCAW 120, OCD 12-13
458 LEWH 69
c.459 Athenian fleet defeats Corinthian/Epidauran fleet at Cecryphaleia Island between Aegina and Greece. 459 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.459 MEGARA, in Athenian League:  Athenians build 2 long walls from Megara to its main port NISAEA, which stand until 424.  Athenians garrison these walls until 441. 461 ltlb
459 CAH 5, wikNis
c.459 AEGINA Island, at war with Athens from 459, defeated at sea by Athenians, who besiege their main city until 458. 460 DGRG 1-33     459 OCD 12-13 458 LEWH 69     457 CDCC 30
c.458 ARCHONS, impotent from 487, now granted pay by Pericles.  Lower classes are now made elligible. 458 MCAW 121 457 Dur 2-250
c.458 AESCHYLUS produces the  Orestia , supposedly including  "Agamemnon",  "Choephoroe",  Eumenides",  "Proteos" . 458 B76 8-352, CAH 5, CDCC 16, 630, DGRBM, Dur 2-383, MCAW 123, OCD 17, OHG, TToH, bk
c.458 PHILOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 459, ends.  HABRON succeeds until 457. 458 wikEA
c.458 AEGINA Island occupied by Athenian troops under LEOSTHENES, forced to surrender its fleet and join Delian League until ?.  Pays it 30 talents per year. 458 B76 I-109, CAH 5, OCD 12-13     457 Dur 2-439, LEWH 69, MCAW 121     456 bk
c.458 Corinthians raid Megaris to divert Athenian troops away from Aegina, but Corinthians are defeated by Athenian old men and boys under Myronides. 458 LEWH 70
457 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 Corinthian troops are reproached at home for letting Athenian old men and boys defeat them.  Corinthians return, and are defeated by regular Athenian troops, chased into a ditch, and annihilated. 457 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 HABRON, eponymous archon of Athens from 458, ends.  MNESITHEIDES succeeds until 456. 457 wikEA
c.457 CIMON, Athenian statesman, ostracised 461-51, Asks Athens for a military command to prove his loyalty.  Refused by influence of Pericles. 457 DGRBM 1-750, 3-193, MCAW 121, OCD 240
c.457 OdryssiansPHOCIS tries to extend its influence to the headwaters of the Cephissos in the territory of Doris. 457 wikΦcs
c.457 SPARTA enters Peloponnesian War, sends army under Nicomedes across Corinthian Gulf to help Dorians against Phocis, restores the BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, but not under Thebes until 446. 458 CAH 5
457 DGRBM 3-412, LEWH 70
c.457 Spartan troops under Nicomedes occupy Tanagra, 25km east Thebes. 458 DGRBM 1-751
c.457 Athenian fleet under LEOCRATES defeats Spartan fleet off Aegina island, take 70 Spartan shipsLeocrates lands and besieges Aegina city. 457 DGRBM 2-750
c.457 PHOCIS, allied with Athens, siezes Delphi.  457 OCD 826
c.457 BoeotiaSpartans under Nicomedes returning from Doris, fight Athens at the isthmus.  Peloponnesians under Nicomedes defeat Athenians, Argives, and allies at TANAGRA 30km east Thebes, and go home. 458 CAH 5, OHG 457 B76 4-618, 8-354, CDCC 129, DGRBM 3-193, Dur 2-250, GHH, LEWH 70, OCD 140, 1036, bk
c.457 CIMON, ostracized Athenian statesman, proves his value at Tanagra, restored to favor.  But he can't be legally recalled until 447, and remains exiled until 451. 457 MCAW 121
c.457 2 months after Tanagra, MYRONIDES leads Athenian army into Boeotia. 456 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 Peloponnesians under Nicomedes withdraw from Boeotia leaving the Athenians under MYRONIDES to defeat Thebans and Boeotians at OENOPHYTA 40km east of Thebes.  All Boeotian cities except except Thebes are forced into the Delian League until 447.  PHOCIS and LOCRIS are also forced to join. 458 B76 14-67, CAH 5, OHG 457 B76 8-354, CDCC 129, 491, 621, LEWH 70, OCD 320, 800, bk     456 DGRBM 2-1131, GHH
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES marches against Opuntian Locrians, takes 100 hostages. 456 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES invades Thessaly, fails to take Pharsalos, returns to Athens. 456 DGRBM 2-1132
c.457 Archonship opened to Zeugitai: men who could produce 200 bushels of wet or dry goods (or equivalent), per year. 457 CAH 5 457/6 wikZg
c.457 AESCHYLUS sails to Sicily until death 456. 457 DGRBM 1-41
c.457 Long WallsLONG WALLS (begun 461) connecting ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens are completed.  They are increased in 445 and last until 404.  Western wall 6km long connects southwest Athens with Piraeus; Eastern wall continues from south of Athens to Phaleron, 5½km away.  Between walls, a triangle of land can be used for agriculture. 458 Dur 2-244, MCAW 121, OHG     458/7 CDCC 684     457 LEWH 70, bk, lvG     456 DGRBM 3-1029, GHH, OCD 619, 800, TTOH
c.457 Temple of Zeus 2nd Temple of Zeus at Olympia by architect Libon of Elis, begun 469, completed with sculptures.  Made of coarse local shell conglomerate coated with white stucco.  Has 6 columns across front and 13 on sides. Photo {{PD-US}}

460 CDGRA 592
457 CDCC 69, 624, 866, CDGRA 60, MCAW 121
456 B76 8-351, CAH 5, Dur 2-244, OHG 344, wikTZ
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES dies. 457 DGRG 1-676
no date: DGRBM 2-1132
c.456 NAUPACTOS in Aetolia, under Locrians of Opus from ?, siezed by Athenians and populated with exiled Messenians until 404. 456 CAH 6-42, OCD 723
455 DGRBM 1-67, wikNp
c.456 CORONEA Boeotia, comes under Athens until 446. 456 rcSB3
c.456 MNESITHEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 457, ends.  CALLIAS succeeds until 455. 456 wikEA
c.456 Athena PromachosPHIDIAS, Athenian sculptor, completes bronze statue "Athena Promachos", about 9m tall (tallest statue in Athens).  In the same year it is put between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis.  The helmet crest and spear are visible from the sea at Sunion.  Dedicated 438.  Remains there until 465CE, when it is transported to Constantinople.  Part of the marble base survives. 456 B76 VII-935, OCD 812, wikAP

left Elliott Brown
right {{PD-US}}
c.455 Athenian TOLMIDES is assigned 1,000 men to sail around the Peloponnese raiding the coast.  He recruits another 4,000 volunteers, and proceeds, burns shipyard at Gytheum on south coast of Laconia, takes Chalcis (a Corinthian city, unknown location), and disembarks on Sicyonian territory.  He defeats troops sent against him. 456 CAH 5
455 DGRBM 3-1162, DGRG 1-1022, 3-1162, GHH, LEWH 70, bk
c.455 CALLIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 456, ends.  SOSISTRATOS succeeds until 454. 455 wikEA
c.455 PYTHAGOREAN SOCIETY at Croton Italy from 530, almost totally destroyed by democratic revolution.  Survivors return to Greece and settle in Thebes and Phileius. 460-400 OCD 904
455 B76 VIII-326 450 B76 15-325
c.455 EURIPIDES 1st play  Daughters of Pelias . 455 CAH 5, DGRBM 2-104, Dur 2-401, GHH, MCAW 123, OHG
c.455 ION of Chios, Athenian tragic poet, philosopher, critic of Pericles, flourishes. 455 MCAW 123 451 GHH
c.454 ALEXANDER-I ends.  7th Argead king of Macedon from 498.  Son PERDICCAS-II succeeds until 413. 455 Dur 2-710     454 CAH 6-723, GHH, lvG, rcSB2, wikAlx1, wikArg, wikLKM, wikPrd2     452 MRDK
450 IDB 3-216, OCD 39
c.454 PERDICCAS-II, king of Macedon 454-13, favors Sparta against Athens. 454 GHH
c.454 Philolaus, Pythagorean astronomer of Croton Italy, moves to Greece until sometime before 399, flourishes at Thebes until ?. 454 wikPhl
c.454 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, joins Athenian League until 432. 454 rcSB2
Macedonia Thrace
c.454 NEAPOLIS Thrace becomes tributary to Athens until ?. 454 wikNT
c.454 SOSISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 455, ends.  ARISTON succeeds until 453. 454 wikEA
c.454 Athenian PERICLES crosses the isthmus and campaigns in the Corinthian Gulf unsuccessfully. 455/4 CAH 5 454 LEWH 70
c.454 Athenian PERICLES invades territory of Sicyon, routing his opposition. 454 DGRBM 3-193, GHH
c.454 Athenian PERICLES, recruits some Achaean troops, goes from Sicyon to Acarnania, besieges Oeniadae unsuccessfully. 454 DGRBM 3-193, GHH
c.454 Legend:  Rome sends envoys (3 patricians) to Athens to get a copy of the  laws of Solon  and others for study. 454 Dur 3-23, LEWH 84, MCAW 121     451 TToH
c.454 Treasury of Delian League, on Delos from 477, is moved to Athens by Pericles because of Persian victory in EgyptDelian League is now called what it always has been:  the ATHENIAN LEAGUE until 404.  DELOS comes under more direct Athenian control until 314, but still does not pay tribute. 462 DGRA 1064     461 GHH     455 bk     454 B76 III-447, 14-67, CDCC 100, Dur 2-244, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OCD 321, 495, 230, OHG
c.453 Athens makes alliance with SEGESTA and HALICYAE in Sicily. 453 LEWH 70
c.453 ORESTES, king of Thessaly from 460, ends.  ARISTOMIDES and ANGELOS succeed until ?. 453 rcSB2
c.453 ARISTON, eponymous archon of Athens from 454, ends.  LYSICRATES succeeds until 452. 453 wikEA
c.453 Because of Tolmides expedition 455, ACHAEA joins Athenian League until 446. 454 TToH
453 MCAW 120
c.452 Tragedian Ion of Chios produces first tragedy.  Wins 3rd prize after Euripides and Iophon. 452 wik
c.452  OSTRACISM law  of 487 repealed. 452 DGRA 504
c.452 LYSICRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 453, ends.  CHAEROPHANES succeeds until 451. 452 wikEA
c.452 Athens, having no cavalry in 490, now has 300 cavalry. 452 CDGRA 278
c.451 PAY for JURORS (2 obols a day) introduced in Athenian popular courts by Pericles.  Enables poor citizens to serve. 462 Dur 2-244     457 CAH 5 451 Dur 2-249, LEWH 70     451/0 RAH 227
c.451 Pericles, leader of democratic party 461-43, carries a bill to RESTRICT Athenian CITIZENSHIP to those with two Athenian parents.  Marriage of a citizen to a non-citizen is illegal.  Repealed 429. 451 BCoC 333, CAH 5, Dur 2-250, LEWH 70, MCAW 121, OHG 154, bk 451/0 B76 14-67, OCD 800
c.451 CHAEROPHANES, eponymous archon of Athens from 452, ends.  ANTIDOTOS succeeds until 450. 451 wikEA
c.451 Pericles proposes recall of Cimon. no date: DGRBM 3-193
c.451 Oligarch CIMON, exiled from Athens from 461, recalled to Athens to mediate a truce with Sparta FIVE YEAR TRUCE  between Athens and Sparta negotiated by Cimon. 456 DGRBM, GHH     454 TToH
454/3 DGRBM 1-751     451 B76 III-447, 8-354, 14-67, CAH 5, CDCC 485, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OHG, RAH 230, bk     451/0 OCD 800
450 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 240, OHG
c.451 ARGOS, defended by Athens from ?, is no longer defended because of the truce.  Argos makes a  30 year peace  (not to be confused with 446) with Sparta. 451 CAH 5, LEWH 70, OHG, bk
c.450 CHERSONESE peninsula comes under ATHENIAN LEAGUE. 450 OCD 229
c.450 GREEK EARLY CLASSICAL Period ends.  Began 480.
HIGH CLASSICAL begins until 400.
Athens resumes leadership in art and architecture.
B76 19-291, 293
c.450 ANTIDOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 451, ends.  EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 449. 450 wikEA
c.450 ARCHILAOS, pupil of Anaxagoras, philosopher of Ionian School, teaches at Athens. 450 GHH
c.450 OENOPIDES of Chios, mathematician, geometer, astronomer, flourishes in Athens.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  determined the angle between the plane of the celestial equator, and the yearly path of the sun in the sky to be 24.  It is now calculated at 23½.  He calculated how many solar years it takes for the moon to get back in the same position.  He said 59 years, corresponding to 730 months.  It was a big improvement over the previous estimation of 8 years, corresponding to 99 months, but was still about 7 days off.  The actual figure cannot be calculated because of variations in the lunar orbit.
(See Mahavira 468, Naburimannu 450, Meton 432)
480-71 TTS
450 wikOen
450-25 OCD 748
c.450 ASPASIA, an educated blond courtesan from Megara, moves to Athens, opens a school of rhetoric and philosophy.  Advocates higher education of women. 450 Dur 2-253
c.450 Supported by Pericles, CIMON is made commander of 200 ships and sails for Cyprus.  Dies there same year, after which Thucydides becomes leader of the aristocratic party, which he organizes in opposition to Pericles. 451/0 B76 8-354     450 CAH 5, CDCC 249, LEWH 70, OCD 805, cpnt     450/49 CAH 6-308
449 DGRBM 1-751, 3-1111, TToH, bk     440 Dur 2-719
c.450 Λ PHYSICS V:  ATOMIC THEORY V proposed by Pythagorean Society, in Greece from 455. 450 Dur 2-342
Mycenae citadel
Mycenae citadel
Sculptor MYRON of Eleutherae flourishes.
470-30 OHG
450 LEWH 76
460-40 CAH 5 442 Dur 2-244 431 DGRBM 2-1130
c.450 SOPHOCLES play  Ajax .
"The pleasantest laughter is at the expense of our enemies."
"The ox, though bulky, is kept on the road with a small whip."
450 MNDQ 651, 702
pre-441B76 17-17
c.450 Λ BEER:  Sophocles advocates beer with meals, but moderation in consumption.   (See China 650Britain 325) 450 wikHB
c.450 Temple of TheseusTemple of Theseus at Athens, begun 469, completed.  Runaway slaves are allowed to take refuge in it and not be extradited by their masters.  A festival to Theseus is celebrated on the 8th of each month, especially Pyanepsion.  Connected with this festival are the Connideia, in memory of Connidas, guardian of Theseus, and the Cybernesia, having reference to his voyage.
Possibly same as Temple of Hephaestos 415.
photo Guillaume Piolle

465 DGRG 1-287 450 TToH, TTPC
no date: DGRBM 3-1100
c.450 TRAPETUM (fruit juice press) used at Olynthos Chalcidice. 450 SHT 2-112
c.450 ZENO of Elea visits Athens, brings copies of his writings. 450 Dur 2-351, 367
c.450 Parmenides of Elea, age 65, visits Athens, meets Zeno. 450 EoΦ 6-47, wikPrm
c.450 PROTAGORAS of Abdera comes to Athens, begins career teaching sophistry for large fees until 415. 450 MCAW 125     433 CAH 5 422 DGRBM
c.450 CRATES, Athenian Old Comic poet, flourishes.  Wins 3 times at the City Dionysia. 450 wikCr 449 GHH
c.450 PHERECYDES of Athens, historian, mythographer, logographer from Leros Island, flourishes.  He modifies legends, not to rationalize them, but to adjust them to popular beliefs. 480 GHH 450 wikPL
c.450 MANTINEA southeast of Arcadia becomes a moderate democracy. 471 rcPl
450 OCD 644
c.450 Handheld CROSSBOW (gastraphetes) invented? in Greece.   (See China 700) 5-400 wikCrs
475-430 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.450 ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomenae, in Athens from 464, charged with impiety for saying the sun is a hot stone slightly larger than the Peloponnese, and for sympathy with Medo-Persians.  Tried and convicted, but saved from punishment by Pericles.  He is fined and either banished or escapes to Lampsacos until death 428. 450 B76 I-345, CDΦ 24, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 61
436 CAH 5     434 KPHP 15, MCAW 129     432 Dur 2-244 no date: wikPer


ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomenae flourishes.

(See Heraclitos 500, Xenophanes 480, Parmenides 460, Hippasus 445)

Λ PHYSICS V:  Matter is composed of an infinite number of different ingredients (flesh, bone, wood, water).  All matter contains a portion of every ingredient.  Every substance can be infinitely divided.  Things are recognized by their most obvious characteristic.  Mind is homogeneous motionless matter considered as conscious.
(See Xenophanes 480, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

COSMOGONY V:  In the beginning was mind, which spun around and caused seeds to separate out.  Air (moist, cold, dark) gravitated toward the center.  Aether (opposite of air) went to the circumference.  Heavenly bodies are stones torn from Earth and ignited by fast rotation.
(See Anaximander 550, Anaximenes 545, Hippo 450, Empedocles 444)

COSMOLOGY:  Universe is infinite.  Earth is flat.
(See Pythagoreans 520, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)
Earthquakes are caused by underground clouds that burst forth.
Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Correctly interprets Λ ECLIPSES.
(See eclipse 776, Naburimannu 450)
Magill 22, OCD 61
no date:
B76 I-345, BHM 63, KPHP 16
435 GHH
c.450  PROTOGONOS THEOGONY :  Protogonos "Firstborn" is the deity of procreation and generation of new life, who is introduced by Orphic tradition.  Later names for this concept include Phanes "manifest", Ericapaeus "power", and Metis "thought".  In these myths Phanes is often equated with Eros and Mithras, and emerges from a cosmic egg, entwined with a serpent.  He is androgynous and has animalistic elements, sometimes a helmet and broad golden wings.  The Orphic cosmogony is bizarre, and unlike the creation sagas of Homer and Hesiod.  Protogonos Theogony is known thru commentary in the Derveni papyrus 340 and references in Empedocles and Pindar. 500 orti, wikOrΦ
450-400 wikDP, wikOrΦ
c.450  EUDEMIAN THEOGONY :  An Orphic product of a syncretic Bacchic-Kouretic cult.  Ouranos and Ge beget Ocean and Tethys, who beget 12 Titans. 5th cen wikOrΦ
c.450 THEATRICAL MASKS (personae) are attested no earlier than the 5th cen.  No examples or representations of them exist until 4th cen.  Some, but not all, function as megaphones. 5th cen wikTAG
c.450 Omphalos ApolloCALAMIS, Greek sculptor flourishes.  Works in marble, bronze, gold, and ivory.  Famed for statues of horses.  According to Pausanias, Calamis made a statue of Zeus Ammon for Pindar, and a Hermes Criophorus for Tanagra, which is later depicted on Roman coins of Tanagra.  His statue of Apollo Alexikakos stood in the Ceramicus of Athens.  He produced his most ambitious work, a 30-cubit statue of Apollo for Apollonia Pontica.  This is a Roman copy. Statue Albani Collection

5th cen. wikAlc
c.449  PEACE of CALLIAS , negotiated (possibly on Cyprus, but signed at Susa) by Callias son of Hipponicos, ends hostilities between Athens and Persia, defining their spheres of influence and regulating relations between them.  Persian warships stay out of Aegean.  Athenians leave AnatoliaIonian cities are independentCyprus is under Persia.  MEGABYZOS is recognized as independent king of Syria by Artaxerxes-I.
This results in decreased tribute to Athenian League.
449 B76 1-824, CAH 5, 6-48, CDCC 455, GHH,
IDB 1-241, MCAW 124, OCD 126, 194, OHG,
RAH 230, WPOT 327, bk, vrb     449/8 B76 III-447, OCD 805     448 B76 8-309, 9-835, Dur 2-244, Sdl 5-188     no date: LEWH 70
c.449 Athenian League reduces tribute requirement and allows cities to issue their own coins. 449
MCAW 125
c.449 Architect CALLICRATES comissioned by Athenian senate to build a temple to Athena Nike on the bastion of the southwest corner of the Acropolis.  Construction doesn't begin until 427. 449
B76 II-462
c.449 EUTHYDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 450, ends.  PEDIEOS succeeds until 448. 449 wikEA
c.449 CIMON dies. 449 GHH
c.449 Pericles, leader of democratic party 461-43, Holds a conference of 30 Greek states, advocates rebuilding of temples destroyed by PersiansSparta refuses to cooperate, but Pericles decides to use Athenian League funds.  Thucydides objects. 449 RAH 230
448 MCAW 124
no date:
B76 14-67
c.449 2nd SACRED WAR begins until 448.  Sparta helps Delphi.  Athens helps Phocis. 449 CDCC 775, LEWH 70, rcSB3 448 CDCC 260, DGRBM, GHH
c.449 DELPHI, under Phocis from ?, taken by Sparta until 448.  Phocians are expelled. 449 CDCC 775, LEWH 70, rcSB3 449/8 B76 VII-957   448 CDCC 260
c.449 Temple of Hephaestos in Athens, begun until 415.  Doric peripteral temple, located at north-west side of the Agora, on top of the Agoraios Kolonos hill. 450 CAH 5
449 CDCC 866, wikTHΦ
c.449 Indian COTTON reported by Herodotus:   "a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep"  He is apparently not taken seriously.  (See Megasthenes 300) no date: wikHC
c.449 HERODOTUS publishes 1st part of his  History . It ends in year 474.
"India is the farthest known region of the inhabited world to the east."
449 TTPC
c.449 Λ COSMOGONY V:  OLD EARTH proposed by Herodotus, who reasons that it would have taken millenia for the annual Nile flood to have produced the Nile delta. 450 higrd
c.448 PEDIEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 449, ends.  PHILISCOS succeeds until 447. 448 wikEA
c.448 PHOCIS reinstated by Athenians. 448 OCD 943
c.448 Spartans invade Attica. 448 CAH 5
c.448 DELPHI, independent from 449, taken by Athenian PERICLES, restored to Phocis until 421, ending 2nd SACRED WAR from 449. 448 LEWH 70, OCD 800, 826, rcSB3
c.448 DELPHI temple and treasury administration taken over by Phocis with consent of Athens. 448 DGRBM 3-194
c.448 CRATINOS, comic writer, produces 1st known play  Archilochoi . 448 DGRBM 1-887
c.448 Spartans march to Delphi, displace the Phocians, and restore temple and treasury to the Delphians, who grant Spartans preference in oracle consultation.  But as soon as they leave, an Athenian army under Pericles comes back, and reverses the situation with Athenians getting oracle preference. 448 DGRBM 3-194
c.447 "CLERUCHY", a new form of colonization, adopted by Athenian League.  Poor people set up in foreign cities under military governors. 447 MCAW 124
no date: OCD 252
c.447 PERICLES leads 1,000 colonists to CHERSONESE imposes an Athenian cleruchy on it. 448 CAH 5
447 CDCC 209, OCD 320
c.447 PHILISCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 448, ends.  TIMARCHIDES succeeds until 446. 447 wikEA
c.447 BOEOTIA, in Athenian League from 457, siezed by oligarchs, secedes, recovers independence. 447 CDCC 181, 491, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 140, bk
447/6 OCD 320
c.447 BoeotiaAthens sends a small force under Tolmides to recover Boeotia and Phocis for the democrats.  Tolmides recovers Chaeronea, but when returning is defeated at CORONEA by the Boeotians and killed.  Athenian domination of Boeotia from 457 ends. 447 B76 8-355,
CDCC 181, 491, DGRBM 3-1162, DGRG 1-688, Dur 2-440, GHH, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 320, 800, 826, OHG, TToH, rcSB3
446 B76 8-358, CAH 5, CDCC 129
c.447 BOEOTIA sets up moderate oligarchies in all cities.  BOEOTIAN LEAGUE is re-established as a federation until 386, with a treasury, coinage, and troop levy. 447 B76 8-345, LEWH 70, OCD 433
c.447 LOCRIS and PHOCIS, in Athenian League from 457, follow Boeotia in seceding.  They recover independence. 447 LEWH 70, OCD 140
c.447 MEGARA, in Athenian League from 460, follows Boeotia in seceding.  Independent until late 446. 448 CAH 6-488     447 B76 14-67-8, LEWH 70, OCD 140     446 bk, rcSB3
c.447 With funds confiscated from Athenian League, PARTHENON construction on Acropolis is begun until 432.  Pericles is building commissioner, Pheidias general supervisor, Ictinos and Callicrates architects. 448 TTPC     447 B76 II-462, VII-774, 2-266, 14-67, CAH 5, Dur 2-332, CDCC 100, 104, 646, LEWH 76, OCD 141, 785, 800, OHG, RAH 272, TTT, lvG
c.447 Pericles, commission several sculptures for Athens from Phidias to celebrate Greek victory at Marathon, uses some money from the League of Delos to rebuild and decorate Athens to celebrate this victory. 447 wikΦd
c.447 Phidias begins marble statue of Athena Parthenos, finished 438. 447 wikAθP
c.447 ACHAEUS of Eretria, Athenian tragic poet & playwright, produces 1st play, wins a victory. 447 OCD 4
c.447 HERODOTUS moves from Halicarnassus to Athens until 443. 484 LEWH 75
447 Dur 2-430, wikHrd
c.446  FIVE YEARS TRUCE  from 451 between Athens and Sparta expires, leaving Athens vulnerable to general opposition. 445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 EUBOEA, in Athenian league 477-11, led by city of CHALCIS (under a cleruchy from 506), rebels against Athens until later 446. 447 B76 14-67-8     446 B76 III-985, CAH 5, CDCC 332, DGRG 1-872, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 226, 412, 320, OHG     445 DGRBM 3-194, DGRG 1-599, GHH
c.446 TIMARCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 447, ends.  CALLIMACHOS succeeds until 445. 446 wikEA
c.446 PERICLES invades Euboea. 446 LEWH 70, OCD 320 445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 MEGARA, under Athens from ?, rebels, massacres most of the Athenian garrison, the rest flee southeast to its port city Nisaea.  Megara allies with Corinth until 4??. 445 DGRBM 3-194, GHH, rcSB3
c.446 MegarisPLEISTOANAX Agiad king of Sparta 459-45, accompanied by counsellor Cleandridas, invades Megaris to help Megara, encamps on border of Attica to defend Megara from Athens, begins ravaging Attica. 446 B76 14-68, CAH 5, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 147
DGRBM 1-779, 3-194, 412
c.446 PERICLES returns from Euboea because of Spartan invasion, doesn't risk battle with Pleistoanax, retires to Athens. 446 B76 14-68, LEWH 70 445 DGRBM 3-194
no date: OCD 320
c.446 CORONEA Boeotia, under Athens from 456, autonomous in Boeotian Alliance until 352. 446 rcSB3
c.446 DIAPSEPHISIS first mentioned.  An Athenian political institution to prevent aliens or children of illegal marriages from getting citizen rights. 446 DGRA 400
c.446 Hippodamnos of Miletos redesigns the Piraeus, replacing the unplanned streets and winding alleys with broad straight streets crossing at right angles. 446
Dur 2-330
c.446 PERICLES bribes Pleistoanax to leave Attica.  Pleistoanax withdraws south.  Pericles with 50 galleys and 5,000 troops, returns to Euboea. 446 B76 14-68, CAH 5, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 147
445 DGRBM 1-779, 3-194
c.446 PERSIA / ATHENS peace treaty. 446 LEWH 53
c.446 EUBOEA, in Athenian League 477-11, rebelling 446, suppressed by Pericles, comes under Athenian control until 411. 446 B76 14-68, CDCC 209, Dur 2-439, LEWH 70, OCD 412, bk     445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 CHALCIS Euboea, under the Hippobotae family from ?, Hippobotae are expelled by Pericles, receives Athenian cleruchy until 411. 446 OCD 232
445 DGRBM 3-194, DGRG 1-599
c.446 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE 457-386, comes back under Thebes until 386. 446 OCD 1052
c.446 CALLIAS, Athenian comic poet, wins 1st place at City Dionysia. 446 OCD 194
c.446 PINDAR produces last extant ode,  Pythian Ode 8 . 446 CAH 5, OHG
c.446 1st PELOPONNESIAN WAR, Athens vs. Sparta, from 460 ends in favor of Athens. 451 CDCC 938     446 LEWH 70, OCD 1007, OHG 142, lvG     446/5 CDCC 100, OCD 194     445 B76 III-447, 8-354, lvG
c.446 late  THIRTY YEARS PEACE  negotiated by 10 Athenian envoys under Pericles and Peloponnesians.
Divides Greece into 2 armed camps, but suspends hostilities until 431.
Athens renounces claims on mainland, including Nisea (harbor of Megara), Pegae, Trozen, Achaea, but retains Plataea, Aegina, Naupactos in Aetolia, Ionian possessions.  Athens is free to consolidate island empire.
MEGARA returns to Peloponnesian League.
TROZEN becomes independent.
AEGINA becomes an autonomous tributary to Athenian League.
446 B76 14-20, 68, MCAW 124, OCD 62
446/5 CAH 5, LEWH 70,
OCD 320
445 BCoC 338, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 140, 480, OHG, SHWC 66, TToH, bk
c.446 ACHAEA in Athenian League from 453, made independent by 30 Years Peace until ?. 446 MCAW 124
446 late City of HESTIAE (Histaea) on west Euboea evacuated by Pericles.  A new town, OREOS, replaces it.  2,000 Athenians establish a cleruchy until 404. 446 late Dur 2-439, OCD 252, 412, bk
445 DGRBM 3-194
446/5 Athenian conservatives, angered at 30 Years Peace, try unsuccessfully to ostracise Pericles. 446/5 LEWH 70
c.445 Athens receives gift of FREE GRAIN from Egypt, kicks 5,000 people off citizen roll. 446/5 LEWH 70     445/4 CAH 5 444 DGRBM 3-197
c.445 CALLIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 446, ends.  LYSIMACHIDES succeeds until 444. 445 wikEA
c.445 OdryssiansTERES-I 1st king of Odrysians of Thrace from 460, dies during military campaign.  Son Sporadokos rules, but not as king until 431. 460 rcSB2 445 wikLRTD, wikTrs1
c.445 ERETRIA Euboea receives an Athenian colony.  Under Athens until 338. 445 OCD 406
c.445 HERODOTUS recites his  History , written 449, in Athenian assembly. 485 GHH, bk
c.445 Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sunion (Sunium) southeast of Athens completed. 445 TToH, TTPC
444 lxgt     440 OHG
c.445 Long WallsLONG WALLS connecting ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens 457-404:  Pericles begins doubling the western wall until 443. 446
CDCC 684 445 lvG
c.445 Athens has 1,200 cavalry, including 200 Scythian mercenaries, who are their only mounted archers. 445 CDGRA 278
c.445 PERICLES divorces wife, cohabits with mistress Aspasia until death 429.  Aspasia dominates Athenian society. 445 CDCC 95, OCD 131
c.445 CLEANDRIDAS, counsellor of Pleistoanax, knows he will be blamed for the botched campaign of 446, flees from Sparta, and is condemned to death in absentia. 445 DGRBM 3-412
c.445 PLEISTOANAX suspended.  Agiad king of Sparta from 459, prosecuted for aborting the invasion of Attica, fined more than he can pay, therefore temporarily deposed and exiled until 426.  Resides near the temple of Zeus on Mt. Lycaeus in Arcadia.  Minor son PAUSANIAS succeeds in interim, under regent uncle Cleomenes. 458 MRDK     445 CDCC 653, 690, DGRBM 3-412, OCD 793, lvG
444 DGRBM 3-159, 412, MRDK, rcPl
c.445 CLEANDRIDAS, counsellor of Pleistoanax, prosecuted for taking bribes from Pericles, condemned to death, flees to Thurii. 445 DGRBM 1-779
c.444 LYSIMACHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 445, ends.  PRAXITELES succeeds until 443. 444 wikEA
c.444 ODEUM, a theater for musical performances southeast of the Acropolis in Athens, is completed by Pericles. 444 CDGRA 627
c.444 Population of Athens is 19,000 citizens (males above age 20), but reduced by a law of Pericles to 14,240 citizens.  Re-enacted 403. 444
DGRG 1-262, GHH
c.443 ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, in Athenian League 478-32, rebels unsuccessfully. 443 rcSB2
c.443 THUCYDIDES, son of Melesias, leader of Athenian aristocrats, opposes Pericles' building program on grounds of extravagance and using allied funds, ostracised.  PERICLES is now undisputed ruler of Athens, and is elected strategos every year until his death 429. 445 LEWH 70     444 DGRBM 3-1111, GHH     444/3 lvG     443 B76 IX-938, 8-355, 14-67, CAH 5, OCD 762, 800, 1067, OHG, RAH 231, TToH, bk
c.443 Poet SOPHOCLES is made chief treasurer of Athenian Empire by Pericles.  Responsible for receiving and managing tribute from about 300 subject states. 443 B76 17-14,
Dur 2-392, RAH 232
442 MCAW 124
c.443 PRAXITELES, eponymous archon of Athens from 444, ends.  LYSANIAS succeeds until 442. 443 wikEA
c.443 Pay for serving as witnesses in trials is introduced. 443 GHH
c.443 HERODOTUS in Athens from 447, moves to Thuri Italy until ?. 443 wikHrd
c.442 LYSANIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 443, ends.  DIPHILOS succeeds until 441. 442 wikEA
c.442 Poet SOPHOCLES wins 1st prize for  Antigone .  Explores problem of divided loyalty to state and conscience. 443 TToH     442 Dur 2-244, RAH 232     442/1 B76 17-17, CDCC 834
441 MCAW 124, OCD 1001, OHG 190, bk     440 DGRBM 3-867
c.442 PINDAR, lyric poet of Cyonscephalae, age 80, dies in Argos. 448 Dur 2-743, MCAW 127     447 TToH
446 CDCC 684     442 Dur 2-377, LEWH 75-6     441 SHWC 76     438 OCD 833, TAWH 17
c.441 DIPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 442, ends.  TIMOCLES succeeds until 440. 441 wikEA
c.441 ORCHOMENOS Boeotia, in Boeotian League from ?, comes under oligarchy until 146. 441 rcSB3
c.441 EURIPIDES age 44 wins his first 1st prize for a play at the City Dionysia. 441 DGRBM 2-104, GHH, MCAW 127, OCD 418, OHG 190
c.441 MEGARA, in Athenian League: expels Athenian garrisons from 2 long walls from Megara to its main port NISAEA, which Athenians had built in 459. 441 ltlb
Balkan Peninsula 440-411