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Assyria, Babylon
c.2000 OLD BABYLONIAN (Amorite) PERIOD begins until 1595. 2000 RAI3
1830
FLAP 45
AMORITES, in north Mesopotamia from 2100, migrate to central Mesopotamia, some to southern.
c.2000 SUMERIAN LANGUAGE V PERIOD ends.  Began 2300.
Akkadian language replaces it.
2000
B76 I-177, 17-797
 Akkadian CUNEIFORM  from 2500, has evolved into  Old Assyrian cuneiform , with modifications to Sumerian orthography.  Semitic equivalents for many signs are distorted or abbreviated to form new phonetic values, because Sumerian syllabic script is unintuitive to Semitic speakers.  Former pictograms are reduced to abstractions.  It is soon adopted by Hurrians. 2000 cnwr, wikCun
c.2000 El Argar A lament for the destruction of UR is written in Sumerian.  Goddess Ningal weeps for her city after pleading with Enlil to call back a destructive storm.  Interspersed with the goddess's wailing are other sections, possibly of different origin and composition.  These describe the ghost town that Ur has become, recount the wrath of Enlil's storm, and invoke protection of Nanna (Nergal or Suen) against future calamities.  Ningal, wife of moon god Nanna, goes on to recall her petition to the leaders of the gods, An and Enlil to change their minds and not to destroy Ur.  She does this in private and in a speech to the Annunaki, which decide that the Ur III dynasty is due to end.  The temple treasury was raided by Elamites and the center of power in Sumer moved to Isin, while control of trade in Ur passed to several leading families. photo Dror Feitelson

2000
MCAW 23, wikLUr
c.2000  GILGAMESH EPIC   Sumerian version edited.  Makes a consistent whole from 5 independent fragmentary tales of Gil, 1st written c.2150, but about Uruk in 2700.
King Gilgamesh of Uruk oppresses his people.  The gods create Enkidu, his equal, who fights, then befriends him.  They go to Cedar Mountain, kill Humbaba its monster guardian, cut down the sacred cedar forest which he guards.  Ishtar sends the Bull of Heaven to punish Gil for spurning her advances.  Gil & Enkidu kill the Bull of Heaven.  Enkidu dies of an illness sent by the gods.  Gil seeks immortality, which brings him to Utnapishtim, who was saved from the FLOOD V and given immortality by the gods.  Utnapishtim puts Gil to various tests which he fails, then sends him away, assuring him that he cannot escape death.  Gil returns to Uruk and orders his story inscribed in stone.
(See Akkadian version, Hittite translation 1250, Nineveh Library)
2150-2000 aeh
2000
ANET 73, PANE 1-40, wlw
2000-1500 wikGFM
1800-1700 wikEG
c.2000 BEER V in Gilgamesh Epic:   "The whore opened her mouth and spoke to Enkidu:  'Eat the bread now, O Enkidu, as it belongs to life.  Drink also beer, as it is the custom of the land'." 
Enkidu  "drank 7 pitchers of beer.  His heart grew light; his face glowed; and he sang out with joy."    (See Egypt 2000)
13-1000 hlsb
no date: drbr
c.2000 MATH V:  DECIMAL NOTATION appears in Mesopotamia.   (See EgyptChina decimal 1300) 2000 TTPC-5, bk, ehst
c.2000 SPOKED WHEELS V (4 spokes):  appear in north Mesopotamia, Asia, Persia, Aram, and Egypt.
(See Europe 1500, Crete 1500, China 1300)
2000 SHT 1-212, TTT
late 2nd mil.: PAE 142
c.2000 Two-wheeled CHARIOT invented in Mesopotamia. 2000 wikDHrs     1800 mxfld
c.2000 shadufSHADUF V - a long pole balanced on a pivot with a bucket on one end and a counter-weight on the other - used to lift water in Egypt and Mesopotamia. drawing
{{PD-US}}

2000 TTT, wikSdf
1700 rgnms
1500 B76 11-232
c.2000 BALANCE scale used in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2000 TTT
c.2000 BANKING originates in Mesopotamia.  Merchants loan grain to farmers and traders who carry goods between cities. 2000 wikHB
c.2000 LOOM portrayed in Assyrian and Egyptian murals. 2000 TTT
c.2000 MUSIC:  Instruments in Mesopotamia become distinguished between those playable by anyone, and those requiring skill.   (See  written music 1800) 2000 wikMI
c.2000 Small DRUMS are portrayed in the hands of Sumerian women. 2000 B76 14-65
c.2000 PERFUME developed in Mesopotamia.   (See Egypt 1400) 2000 TTT
c.2000 LOCKS having pin tumblers developed in Assyria. 2000 TTT
c.2000 OXEN and ONAGERS are the only draught animals attested anywhere from their original domestication down to 2000. 2000
SHT 1-721
c.2000 CAMELS V:  Dromedaries, already domesticated in Arabia, now domesticated in Mesopotamia. 2000 blgspt
just before 1000 wikMHNAE
c.2000 POTTER'S WHEEL:  fragment at Uruk.
(See Greece, Crete, Egypt all in 1950)
2000 SHT 1-199
c.2000 1st known PHARMACOPEIA compiled at Ur.  Contains recognizable substances of a carminative, astringent, and emollient nature 2000 CWH, ISBE 3-865
c.1998 LARSA, independent from 2025, under ensi Emisum 2004-1977, comes under Isin until 1924. 1998 hifi
c.1998 URUK, independent under Amorite rulers from ?, comes under Isin until 1865. 1998 hifi
c.1998 ISHBE-ERRA, ensi of Isin & Nippur 2017-1985, drives Elamites out of Ur. 8 yrs after Ur destroyed Sag1 62
c.1998 UR, independent under Elamite rulers from 2004, comes under Isin until 1920. 1998 hifi
c.1998 LAGASH, under either Amorites or Elamites from 2023, comes under Isin until 1920. 1998 hifi
c.1985 KIKKIA, king of Ashur from 2000, ends.   AKIYA succeeds to 1970. 1985 hifi
c.1985 ISHBE-ERRA, ensi of Isin from 2017, ends.  Son SHU-ILISHU succeeds 1984-75. 1985 CAH I-2, Sag 62, 502, frM     1984 hifi
c.1977 EMISUM, 2nd ensi of Larsa from 2004, under Isin from 1998, ends.   SAMIUM succeeds 1976-42. 1977 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, frM
1976 hifi     1040 wikB
c.1975 SHU-ILISHU, son of Ishbe-Erra, 2nd ensi of Isin from 1984, ends.  IDDIN DAGAN succeeds 1974-54. 1984 MRDK
1975 CAH I-2, Sag, frM     1974 hifi
c.1975 MEDICINE:  PHYSICIANS become an important profession in Babylonia and Aram.   (See Kahun papyrus 1800) 2000-1951 TTS
c.1975 Primitive PLOW used in Uruk. 2000-1951 TTS
c.1970 AKIYA, king of Ashur from 1985, ends.   PUZUR-ASHUR-I succeeds to 1960. 1970 hifi
c.1960 PUZUR-ASHUR-I, king of Ashur from 1970, ends.   SHALLIM-AHE succeeds to 1945. 1960 hifi
fl1975 kidA
c.1954 IDDIN DAGAN, son of Shu-Ilishu, 3rd ensi of Isin from 1974, ends.  Son ISHME DAGAN succeeds 1953-35. 1954 CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1953 MRDK, hifi
c.1950 MEASUREMENT V:  SUMERIAN CUBIT is defined as 51.52 cm by a COPPER bar.
(For copper, see Canaan 2000, Britain 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia 1800, Ganges Valley 1800)
1950 wik20bc
c.1950 KAZALLU is a minor city state under Isin 2013-?. 1950 hifi
c.1945 SHALLIM-AHE, king of Ashur from 1960, ends.   ILUSHUMA succeeds to 1906. 1945 hifi
c.1944 ISIN EMPIRE invaded by Amorites.  NIPPUR revolts and is partly destroyed.   ISHME-DAGAN maintains control of Nippur, Uruk, Eridu, Ur, Der. ± 9 yrs Sag 62-3
c.1942 SAMIUM, 3rd ensi of Larsa (under Isin) from 1976, ends.  ZABIA succeeds 1941-33. 1942 CAH I-2, RAI2, frM
1941 hifi     1877 wikB
c.1940 ASSYRIANS begin raiding central and southern Mesopotamia. 1940 hifi     1800 MCAW
c.1935 ISHME-DAGAN, 4th ensi of Isin from 1953, ends.  Son LIPIT-ISHTAR succeeds 1934-24 1990 bk     1935 B76 11-977,
CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1934 MRDK     1933 hifi
c.1933 ZABIA 4th ensi of Larsa (under Isin) from 1941, ends.   GUNGUNUM succeeds 1932-06 1933 CAH I-2, Sag 64, frM, hifi
1932 B76 11-976     1868 wikB
c.1930 GUNGUNUM, 5th ensi of Larsa 1932-06 (under Isin until 1924), campaigns in Zagros Mtns. no date: RAI2 153
c.1930  LAWS of ESHNUNNA   2 tablets written in Akkadian in a mode facilitating memorization.
1. Theft and related offences
2. False distress
3. Sexual offences
4. Bodily injuries
5. Damages caused by a goring ox, & comparable cases
(See Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1930 wikLE
1900 4nel
c.1925 Λ MEASUREMENT:  A copper bar 110.35cm long weighing 41.5kg is a measurement standard used in Nippur.  It is divided into 4 units. 1950-01 TTS
c.1924 LIPIT-ISHTAR, 5th ensi of Isin from 1934, ends.  UR-NINURTA succeeds to 1896. 1980 bk     1942 Sag
1924 B76 11-976, CAH I-2, frM
1923 MRDK     1922 hifi
c.1924 LARSA, under Isin from 1998, becomes independent until 1763.
GUNGUNUM, 5th ensi of Larsa from 1932, becomes king of Larsa to 1906, attacks Isin, claims sovereignty over Sumer & Akkad.
1924
RAI2 153
1920 hifi
c.1920 UR, under Isin from 1998, taken by Gungunum, comes under Larsa until 1763. 1920 hifi
c.1920 LAGASH, under Isin from 1998, taken by Gungunum, comes under Larsa until ?. 1920 hifi
c.1910 ILUSHUMA, king of Ashur, invades Babylonia, takes DER, claims to have freed Ur & Nippur (possibly from Amorites). 1900 Sag1 63, 69
c.1910 GUNGUNUM, king of Larsa 1924-06, takes Lagash, Susa, and possibly Uruk. no date: RAI2 153
c.1906 ILUSHUMA, king of Ashur from 1945, ends.   Son IRISHUM-I succeeds to 1867. 1939 kidA     1906 RAI3, hifi
1890 RAI2, Sag 63
c.1906 GUNGUNUM, king of Larsa from 1924, ends.   Amorite ABI-SARE succeeds 1905-1895. 1906 B76 11-976,
CAH I-2, Sag1 64, frM
1905 hifi     1841 wikB
c.1900 BRONZE AGE MESOPOTAMIA 2900-1000
EARLY BRONZE from 2900 ends because of Amorite immigration.
MIDDLE BRONZE begins until 1550.
Three dynasties coexist:  Isin, Larsa, Babylon.
2200 wikBA
1900 MCAW
c.1900 Λ SUMERIAN LANGUAGE, in Mesopotamia from ?, no longer spoken.  Continues with Akkadian as liturgical and literary language. 1900 SAAG 1
1800 SOTS 22
c.1900 SPOKED WHEELS:  in north Mesopotamia from 2000, spokes increased from 4 to 8. 1900 SHT 1-213
1100 increased to 6: TTT
c.1900 KAZALLU, under Isin from ?, breaks free.  Probably seizes city of Marad. 1900 hifi
c.1900 MARI, under a dynasty of generals from c.2250, and now possibly abandoned, is taken or repopulated by by Simalites, a branch of Amorites living in Terqa. 1900 hifi
c.1897 AKKAD re-emerges as an Amorite city state under Babylon, forming the capital of its northern division.  1897 hifi
c.1897 SUMUDITAMA, king of Kazallu, overlord of Kish, & Babylon, ends.  1897 hifi
c.1897 KISH, under Kazallu from ?, breaks free.  IAWIUM rules Kish until 1888. 1897 hifi
c.1897 KAZALLU still controls land from Sippar to Marad, which had been seized from Isin. 1897 hifi
c.1896 UR-NINURTA, 6th ensi of Isin from 1923, ends.  Son BUR-SIN succeeds 1895-74. 1896 CAH I-2, Sag, frM
1895 MRDK     1894 hifi
c.1895 ABI-SARE Amorite king of Larsa from 1905, ends.   SUMU-ILUM succeeds 1894-66. 1895 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, frM
1894 hifi     1830 wikB
c.1894 Amorite prince Sumu-Abum takes advantage of chaos in Mesopotamia to take Babylon from city state of Kazallu.
SUMU-ABUM becomes king of Babylon until 1881.
1950 bk     1897 hifi
1894 B76 2-554, 11-978, CWH, IDB 1-265, RAI2, Sag1 64, brKB, stmaB
1830 LEWH 31
1800 SOTS 24, wikB
1st DYNASTY (Amorite) of BABYLON begins until 1595.
c.1888 IAWIUM ruler of Kish from 1897, conquered by MANANA who succeeds until 1883. 1888 hifi
c.1883 MANANA ruler of Kish from 1888, overthrown by SUMU-ABUM king of Babylon.  Kish is sacked. 1883 hifi
c.1881 SUMU-ABUM ends.  1st king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1894.  SUMU-LA-EL succeeds 1880-45. 1883 hifi     1881 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, brKB, stmaB   1817 wikB   1798 frM
c.1874 BUR-SIN, son of Ur-Ninurta, 7th ensi of Isin from 1895, ends.   LIPIT-ENLIL succeeds to 1869. 1875 CAH I-2     1874 MRDK, RAI2, frM     1873 hifi
c.1870  LIPIT-ISHTAR LAW CODE  written in Sumerian and promulgated in Sumeria.  43 articles and parts of the prolog have survived.
7-11:  lands, gardens, orchards
12-14:  slaves
15-16:  surfs and peasants
18:  transfer of a feif if holder fails to perform duties
21-27:  inheritance
28:  bigamy
29:  A girl may not marry a rejected suitor's best man.
30:  marriage of a harlot
31-33:  division of a paternal estate among heirs
33-37:  fines for damage to a hired ox
(See Eshnunna 1930, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1934-24 4nel
1900-1850 ANET 159
1870
AYGC 78, CWH
1870-60 wikLI
1850 ISBE 3-77, 747
no date: RAI3 182, Sag1 200
c.1869 LIPIT-ENLIL, 8th ensi of Isin from 1874, ends.   IRRA-IMITTI succeeds 1868-61. 1870 CAH I-2
1869 MRDK, RAI2, frM     1868 hifi
c.1867 IRISHUM-I, son of Ilushuma, king of Ashur from 1906, ends.   Son IKUNUM succeeds to 1860. 1900 kidA
1867 CAH I-2, RAI3, hifi
c.1866 SUMU-ILUM, Amorite king of Larsa from 1894, ends.  Followers insignificant until 1834.   NUR-ADAD succeeds 1865-50. 1866 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frM, hifi     1801 wikB
c.1865 URUK, under Isin from 1998, breaks away under SIN-KASHID, who rules as king until 1833.   Uruk is independent until 1816. 1865 hifi
c.1862 IBALPIEL-I ruler of Eshnunna from ?, ends.   Son IPIQADAD-II succeeds until 1830. 1862 hifi
c.1861 IRRA-IMITTI, 9th ensi of Isin from 1868, ends.   ENLIL-BANI succeeds to 1839. 1917 bk     1862 CAH I-2
1861 MRDK, RAI3, frM     1860 hifi
c.1861 YAKHZIR-ILU, king of Kazallu from ?, expelled by king of Babylon.   1861 hifi
c.1860 IKUNUM, son of Irishum I, king of Ashur from 1867, ends.  Son SARGON-I succeeds to 1850. 1860 hifi 1850 ISBE 4-338
c.1850 SARGON-I, king of Ashur 1860-50, invades AMURRU. Sargon yr 11 IDB 1-115
c.1850 SARGON-I, son of Ikunum, king of Ashur from 1860, ends.   Son PUZUR-ASHUR-II succeeds to 1830. 1850 hifi
no date: RAI3, Sag, kidA
c.1850 AMORITES of Arabia begin a new wave of expansion into Fertile Crescent. 1850 mxfld
c.1850 NUR-ADAD, Amorite king of Larsa from 1865, ends.   SIN-IDINNAM succeeds 1849-43. 1850 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, frM, hifi
1785 wikB
c.1845 SUMU-LA-EL ends.  2nd king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1880.  SABIUM succeeds 1844-31. 1866 RAI2, RAI3     1847 hifi
1845 CAH I-2, Sag1, brKB, frM, stmaB     1781 wikB
c.1843 SIN-IDINNAM, Amorite king of Larsa from 1849, ends.
Three less significant followers 1842-35: SINERIBAM, SINIQISHAM, SILLI-ADAD to 1835.
1843 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, frM, hifi
1778 wikB
c.1839 ENLIL-BANI, 10th ensi of Isin from 1861, ends. 1893 bk     1839 Sag
1838 CAH I-2
1837 MRDK, RAI3, frM
1836 hifi
Five rulers of little significance follow until 1794.  ZAMBIA, succeeds to 1833.
c.1835 KUDUR-MARBUK, Amorite sheikh with Elamite affiliations, chases armies of Kazallu & Mutibal out of Larsa. 1890 bk     1850 wikE
no date: Sag 65
c.1835 SILLI-ADAD, Amorite king of Larsa from ?, defeated and killed by armies of Sabium of Babylon, Kazallu & Mutibal.  Kudur-Mabug of Elam installs his son WARAD-SIN to 1823. 1850 wikE
1835 RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frM, hifi
1834 B76 11-977
1770 Sdl 1-162, wikB
c.1833 ZAMBIA, ensi of Isin from 1839, ends.  ITER-PICA, succeeds to 1829. 1835 CAH I-2
1834 MRDK     1833 hifi
c.1833 SIN-KASHID, king of Uruk from 1865, ends.  Son SIN-IRIBAM succeeds to 1827. 1833 hifi
c.1831 SABIUM ends.  3rd king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1844.  APIL-SIN succeeds 1830-13. 1832 hifi     1831 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag, brKB, frM, stmaB     1767 wikB
c.1830 PUZUR-ASHUR-II, son of Sargon, king of Ashur from 1850, ends.  NARAM-SIN succeeds to 1815. 1830 hifi
c.1830 IAGGID-LIM, becomes Amorite ruler of MARI until 1820. 1830 rcS
c.1830 IPIQADAD-II ruler of Eshnunna from 1862, overthrown by NARAM-SIN king of Ashur 1830-15, who rules until 1815. 1830 hifi
c.1830 ESHNUNNA, under Naram-Sin, extends into north Babylonia. 1830 hifi
c.1829 ITER-PICA, ensi of Isin from 1833, ends.  URDU-KUGA, succeeds to 1825. 1831 CAH I-2     1830 MRDK
1829 hifi
c.1827 SIN-IRIBAM, king of Uruk from 1833, ends.  Son SINGAMIL succeeds to 1824. 1827 hifi
c.1825 URDU-KUGA, ensi of Isin from 1829, ends.  SIN-MAGIR, succeeds to 1814. 1828 CAH I-2, frM
1827 MRDK     1825 hifi
c.1824 SINGAMIL, king of Uruk from 1827, ends.  Bro ILUMGAMIL succeeds to 18??. 1824 hifi
c.1823 WARAD-SIN, son of Kudur-Mabug, Amorite king of Larsa from 1834, ends.   Bro RIM-SIN succeeds 1822-1763. 1823 CAH I-2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag 65, frM, hifi     1769 Sdl 1-162
1758 wikB
c.1820 IAGGID-LIM, Amorite ruler of MARI from 1830, ends.  IAKHDUN-LIM, succeeds until 1796. 1830 B76 17-933
1820 RAI3, rcS     1811 hifi
c.1816 ANAM, king of Uruk from 18??, ends.   Son IRDANENE succeeds to 1810. 1816 hifi
c.1815 NARAM-SIN, king of Ashur from 1830, ends.   IRISHUM-II succeeds to 1809. 1815 hifi
c.1815 ESHNUNNA, under Naram-Sin from 1830, goes independent until ?.  DANNUM-TAHAZ rules until 1808. no date: hifi
c.1814 SIN-MAGIR, ensi of Isin from 1825, ends.  DAMIQ-ILISHU, succeeds to 1794. 1817 CAH I-2, frM
1816 MRDK     1814 hifi
c.1813 APIL-SIN ends.  4th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1830.  SIN-MUBALLIT succeeds 1812-1793. 1813 CAH I-2, RAI2, Sag 66, brKB, frM, stmaB     1812 hifi     1749 wikB
c.1810 IRDANENE, king of Uruk from 1816, defeated & captured in battle by RIM-SIN king of Larsa.
URUK, independent from 1865, comes under Larsa until 1786.
Son RIMANUM succeeds as vassal to Larsa until 18??.
1810 hifi
c.1809 IRISHUM-II ends. King of Ashur from 1815, overthrown by SHAMSHI-ADAD, a west Semite from Terqa.
SHAMSHI-ADAD-I succeeds until 1782.
1869 bk     1820 WPOT 157
1814 RAI2 159, Sag 70
1813 B76 1-815, 11-977, ISBE 4-338, kidA
1812 IDB 1-271, 294
1809 RAI3, hifi     1749 Sdl 1-82
1748 FLAP 47, SOTS 165
c.1808 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I king of Assur, unites cities of Ashur, Nineveh, and Arbel into one cohesive unit, gains control over Arrapkha.  Tries to create a territorial state. 1813 aina
c.1808 DANNUM-TAHAZ, ruler of Eshnunna from 1815, ends.   DADUSHA succeeds to 1780. 1808 hifi
c.1803 URUK, vassal of Larsa 1810-1763, plundered and burned by RIM-SIN king of Larsa. 1803/2 hifi
c.1800 Λ MATH V PLIMPTON TABLET #322   Has a table of 4 columns and 15 rows of numbers in Babylonian sexagesimal notation.  Lists what are now called Pythagorean triples, i.e. integers a, b, c satisfying a2 + b2 = c2.Pythagorean Theorem
(See Berlin Pap. 1800)

GEOMETRY:  Shows knowledge of trigonomrtry:  Square of hypotenuse = sum of squares of other 2 sides.
(See Rhind Pap. 1650, trig 1200)
1900-1600 BHM 34
1800 wikPlm
c.1800  DESCENT of INANNA   Inanna visits the underworld to attend funeral rites of Ereshkigal's husband Gugalana. 2000 jnrd, tccc
19-1600 ahe, hlol
c.1800 HARAN comes under Mari until 1760. 1800 rcT
c.1800 Λ BEER V HYMN to NINKASI  (Sumerian goddess of Beer), Sings her praises, and includes a recipe.   (See Egypt 20001600) 1800 brgft, brgne, wikNks
c.1800 Earliest written references to HORSE V breeding found at Chagar-Bazar in northeast Mesopotamia. 1800 SHT 1-721
c.1800 HURRIANS, Aryans originally from Caucasus, enter north Mesopotamia. long before 2000 wikH
1800 TAWH 55
c.1800 HURRIANS at Urkesh (close to or identical to the later city of Washukkanni) adopt Akkadian cuneiform to their own language. 2000 wikH 
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck even after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1800 MARI in mid Euphrates, ruled by two rival dynasties until 1760?. no date: WBANE 56
Native language close to patriarchal Hebrew.
 MARI TEXTS   God MULUK worshipped.
c.1800 IAHDUN-LIM, Amorite ruler of Mari 1830-1796, sends troops into Aram to join those of Yamkhad fighting against several previously subject Aramean tribal states, including Haran and Tuttul.  Arameans are defeated and their towns attacked. 1800 hifi
c.1796 IAHDUN-LIM, Amorite ruler of Mari from 1830, killed by his servants in palace revolt.   Son ZIMRI-LIM flees to Yamhad, in Aram until 1780.  SUMU-YAMAM succeeds to 1791. 1798 rcS     1796 RAI2, RAI3
1795 hifi     no date: Sag 70
c.1796 SHAMSHI-ADAD, king of Ashur 1814-1782, takes advantage of strife in Mari.  Installs 2nd son IASMAH-ADAD as viceroy of Mari until 1780. 1796 RAI2, rcS    1793 IDB 3-266
1791 hifi     1776 RAI3
no date: Sag 70
c.1794 DAMIQ-ILISHU, ensi of Isin from 1814, conquered by RIM-SIN of Larsa.
ISHBE-ERRA DYNASTY from 2017 ends.
ISIN, independent from 2017, under Larsa until 1787.
1796 hifi
1794 B76 11-975, CAH I-2, CWH, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag 65, frM
1791 hifi
c.1793 SIN-MUBALLIT ends.  5th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1812.  Son HAMMURABI succeeds 1792-50. 1948 BCoC 144     1848 bk
1793 B76 9-831, CAH I-2, CWH, IDB 1-268, RAI2, Sag 66, WPOT 180, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1792 SHWC 9     1729 wikB     1728 FLAP 47, LEWH 31, Sdl 1-162, 2-94
c.1790 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, effects efficient bureaucracy decreasing power of priesthood in favor of civil authorities.   Drops pretensions to godhood, but claims to be "favorite of the gods".   Preserves Old Sumerian language in rituals & prayers. 1790
BCAW 75, MCAW 25
c.1790 CALENDAR V REFORM by Hammurabi.
(See Egyptian 1500, Olmec 1200, Roman 713)
1790 BCAW 75, MCAW 25
c.1790 HAMMURABI, in 2nd year, says this is the "year when he established justice".   So this is probably when he published his LAW CODE. 1790 FLAP 47, MCAW 25
law code 1750 mxfld
Hammurabi Stele
Hammurabi (standing) receives laws from god Shamash (seated) with a crown of 4 tiers of horns.
1760 wikBR
1754 wikCH,


left:
GNU FLD
right:
GNU FLD
c.1790  LAW CODE of HAMMURABI   282 laws written in Akkadian with scaled punishments written on a man-sized basalt stele and various clay tablets.  Punishments differ depending on social status.  Nearly ½ of the Code deals with matters of contract.  Covers:  religion, military service, trade, slavery, duties of workers, maintaining irrigation canals and ditches, property, laws regarding gardens.   (See Eshnunna 1930, Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hittite 1370, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE) 1790 FLAP 47, MCAW 25
1772 wikCH
1758 4nel
1750 ISBE 1-385, grddst, mxfld
1726 ANET 163
c.1790 LIQUOR mentioned in Code of Hammurabi.  Contains regulations on taverns to insure fair commerce, but no penalties for drunkenness, which is not even mentioned.  Includes standards for brewing and serving Λ BEER. 1750 hlsb, wikHAB
c.1787 ISIN, under Larsa from 1794, conquered by HAMMURABI, who proceeds down Euphrates.  ISIN under Babylon until ?. 1787 B76 8-599, RAI2 164, frM, hifi
c.1786 URUK vassal of Larsa from 1810, taken by HAMMURABI, under Babylon until ?. 1787 B76 8-599, hifi
1786 RAI2 164
1785 IDB 2-518
c.1786 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, campaigns in EMUTBAL north of Tigris. 1786 RAI2 164
c.1783 City of MALGUM (on Tigris east of Kish) taken by HAMMURABI. 1784 hifi     1783 RAI2 164
c.1782 RAPIQUM (on Euphrates west of Babylon) taken by HAMMURABI. 1782 RAI2 164
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I, king of Ashur 1809-1782 turns on recent ally Eshnunna and seizes Nerebtum and Shaduppum, which are taken back upon his death. 1780 hifi
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I, king of Ashur 1809-1782 is attacked simultaneously by Yamkhad and Eshnunna. 1776 hifi
c.1782 SHAMSHI-ADAD-I dies. King of Ashur from 1809, Son ISHME-DAGAN succeeds to 1741. 1837 bk     1782 RAI2, Sag     1781 B76 1-815, 11-977, CAH I-2, ISBE 4-338, kidA     1780 IDB 1-294
1781 or 76 frM     1776 RAI3, hifi     1717 Sdl 1-82 1716 FLAP 47, LEWH 49, MCAW, SOTS 165
c.1780 DADUSHA, ruler of Eshnunna from 1808, ends.   IBAL-PI-EL-II "Man of Eshnunna" succeeds to 1761. 1790 RAI2     1780 hifi
c.1780 ZIMRI-LIM, son of IAHDUN-LIM former king of Mari, in Yamhad from 1796 backed by Yamhad, Eshnunna, Babylon, returns to claim inheritance of Mari. 1782 CAH 2.1-263 1781 rcS
1780 IDB 3-266, RAI2, RAI3, WPOT 222       1776 hifi
no date: Sag 71
IASMAH-ADAD, Assyrian viceroy of Mari from 1796, overthrown by ZIMRI-LIM, who rules Mari as king 1779-61.
c.1776 HAMMURABI, 6th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon 1792-50, uses political stalemate to fortify northern border cities until 1768. 1776
B76 8-598
c.1775 Λ MATH V:  Multiplication tables appear in Mesopotamia.   (See Egypt 1700) 1800-1751 TTS
c.1775 PALACE at MARI, largest in Mesopotamia, built by ZIMRI-LIM. 1775
PW 14
Archive contains 17,500 clay tablets.
c.1770  MARI DOCUMENT:  "There is no king who...alone is strongest.
10 to 15 kings follow Hammurabi of Babylon.
The same number follow Rim-Sin of Larsa.
The same number follow Ibal-Pi-El of Eshnunna.
The same number follow Amut-Pi-El of Qatanum.
20 kings follow Yarim-Lim of Yamhad." 
pre-yr 13 Sag1 67
c.1764 ZIMRI-LIM, king of Mari 1789-61, recognizes ally Hammurabi as greatest threat to his independence.  Joins Anti-Babylonian Coalition. Ham yr 29 Sag1 71
c.1764 ANTI-BABYLONIAN COALITION:  (Elam, Eshnunna, Guti, Assyria, Mari) attacks Babylonia, and is crushed. 1764 B76 8-599, RAI2 166, hifi
c.1764 ELAM, under king Shirukduk, crushed by Hammurabi. 1764 hifi     Ham yr 30 Sag1 72
1762 frM
c.1763 RIM-SIN, son of Kudur-Mabug, Amorite king of Larsa from 1822, who failed to assist Hammurabi in 1764, overthrown by Hammurabi. 1763 B76 8-599, 11-977, CAH I-2, CWH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 72, frM, hifi
1699 wikB
1698 Sdl 1-162
LARSA, independent from 1924, conquered by Hammurabi.   Under Babylon until 1740.
c.1763 UR, under Larsa from 1920, comes under Babylon until ?. 1763 hifi
c.1763 SUMER & AKKAD, disunited from ?, united under HAMMURABI. 1763 RAI2, Sag1 72, hifi
c.1761 ZIMRI-LIM, king of Mari from 1779, conquered by Hammurabi.  Becomes his vassal until 1759.
MARI under Babylon until 1595.
1761 RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 72, WPOT 222, hifi     1760 rcS
1700 SOTS 24
1697 FLAP 46
c.1761 ESHNUNNA, under a dynasty from 2050, conquered by Hammurabi. 1762 hifi
1761 Sag , RAI2
IBAL-PI-EL-II, ruler of Eshnunna from 1780, overthrown.
c.1761 ZIMRI-LIM, vassal-king of Mari under Hammurabi from 1761, revolts and is defeated. 1761 B76 8-599, hifi
no date: Sag1 72
c.1760 HARAN, under Mari from 1800, comes under various Akkadian peoples until 1600. 1760 rcT
c.1760 ELAMITES in Mesopotamia driven out by Hammurabi. 1760 wikE
c.1760 CANAL on west branch of Euphrates rebuilt by Hammurabi to facilitate resettlement of population that lived there before the war. 1760
B76 8-599
c.1760 ASHUR captured by Hammurabi. 1760 frM
c.1759 MARI, independent Amorite kingdom from 1780, destroyed by Hammurabi.  Area annexed by Babylon until 1730. 1760 MCAW 24     1759 CAH 2.1-263, RAI2 167, Sag, hifi
1757 Sag1 67, frM
c.1756 HAMMURABI, king of Babylon 1792-50, defeats Assyrian army, but doesn't conquer Assyria. 1756 RAI2 167
Some say he conquered Assyria.
c.1756 ESHNUNNA ravaged by flood.   Rarely mentioned thereafter. 1756 hifi
c.1754 ISHME-DAGAN, king of Ashur 1782-42, loses control of north Mesopotamia to HAMMURABI. 1754 RAI2
c.1754 All Mesopotamia except Assyria is now under HAMMURABI. 1950 TTPC     1806 bk
c.1750 Λ CAMELS V:  Dromedaries, domesticated in Mesopotamia from 2000, present at Mari, evidenced by bones found. 18th cen IDB 1-490
c.1750 Λ  GILGAMESH EPIC  V early Akkadian versions.  So fragmentary that it is unclear whether they included an expanded account of the Λ FLOOD V myth; but 1 fragment includes Gilgamesh's journey to meet Utnapishtim.
2000-1500 wikGFM
c.1750 HAMMURABI dies.  6th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1792.
Son SAMSU-ILUNA succeeds 1749-12.
1913 TTPC     1905 BCoC 144     1806 bk
1750 B76 9-831, CAH I-2, CWH, MCAW 24, RAI2, Sag 73, SHWC 9, WPOT 180, brKB, hifi, stmaB     1696 frM
1686 FLAP 47, Sdl 1-162, wikB
c.1741 Son of Shamshi-Adad-I, ISHME-DAGAN ends.  King of Ashur from 1782.  MUT-ASHKUR succeeds to 1730. 1742 RAI2, Sag
1741 CAH I-2, RAI3, frM, kidA
c.1741 RIM-SIN-II of Larsa and ANNI of Eshnunna rebel against Babylonian domination until 1736. 1741 hifi
c.1740 GUNDASH becomes 1st king of Kassites until 1705. 1746 RAI2     1730 hifi
1720 MRDK
c.1740 GUNDASH, 1st king of Kassites, 1740-05,, raids Babylonia, ravages Ur & Uruk. no date: Sag1 73
Samsu yr 9 Wiki
Introduces Λ HORSE V & CHARIOT.
c.1740 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats Kassite raiders. Samsu yr 9 RAI3 243
c.1740 SEALANDS come under Babylonia until 1721. guess
c.1737 UR and its walls destroyed by Babylonians under Samsu-Iluna. Samsu yr 12 mxfld
WRITING V:  Until now, all tablets and texts of Ur were written in Sumerian, but after destruction the tablets were written in Babylonian.  The invaders adopted cuneiform writing, but Sumerian language died.
c.1736 ANNI ruler of Eshnunna, under Babylon, rebelling from 1741, captured by Babylonians under Samsu-Iluna and strangled.  Eshnunna is destroyed. 1736 hifi
c.1735 KASSITES under GUNDASH move from Persia into north Mesopotamia.   Mesopotamia becomes their center of activity until 1157. guess
c.1732 KISH taken by Sealand kings until 1460. 1732 hifi
c.1730 MUT-ASHKUR ends.   King of Ashur from 1741, RIMUSH succeeds to 1727. 1730 hifi
c.1730 ESHNUNNA, conquered by SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12.. 1730 B76 11-978
c.1730 MARI, under Babylon from 1759, taken by GUNDASH, king of Kassites 1740-05.  Becomes Kassite capital until ?.  Under Kassites until 1595. 1730 hifi
c.1727 RIMUSH ends.  King of Ashur from 1730.  A brief period of anarchy follows until 1726. 1727 hifi
c.1726 ASINUM becomes king of Ashur and ends the same year.  PUZUR-SIN succeeds to 1707. 1726 hifi
c.1726 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, builds Fort Samsuiluna at confluence of Diyala and Tigris for defense against Kassites. 1726
B76 11-978
c.1725 HURRIANS, in north Mesopotamia from 1800, are now in north Aram, particularly Alalakh. 1800 TAWH 55     1725 wikH
c.1725 BABYLON raided by Kutir-Nahunte-I, king Elam. 1725 ISBE 2-50
c.1722 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats 2 otherwise unknown kings, Iadikhabum & Muti-khurshana. 1722 hifi
c.1721 SEALANDS, under Babylonia from 1740, rebel against SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12.  Go independent until 1460. yr 28 Sag1 74
c.1714 SAMSU-ILUNA, king of Babylon 1749-12, defeats Amorite army. 1714 RAI2 199
c.1712 SAMSU-ILUNA ends.  7th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1749.  Son ABI-ESHUH succeeds 1711-1684. 1768 bk     1712 B76 9-831, 11-978, Sag1 73, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1648 wikB
c.1710 ABI-ESHUH, king of Babylon 1711-1684, attacks ILUMA-ILU, king of Sealands, who flees to the swamps and continues to rule. 1715 hifi
c.1707 PUZUR-SIN ends.  King of Ashur from 1726, ends.  ADARI usurps throne as a vassal to Babylon until 1700. 1707 hifi
c.1705 GUNDASH, 1st king of Kassites from 1740, at Mari from 1730, ends.  AGUM-I succeeds to 1690. 1731 RAI2     1705 hifi
1700 MRDK
c.1700 ADARI ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Babylon) from 1707.  Son BELU-BANI succeeds to 1691. 1700 RAI3, frM, hifi, kidA
c.1700 COMPOUND INTEREST practiced at Babylon.   A tablet asks how long it will take a sum of money to double at 20% compounded annually. 1700 EIHM 45
c.1700 Λ CUNEIFORM WRITING is adopted thruout the Mid East for international communication.  Some use the Babylonian language, some adopt cuneiform signs to their own language.  Hittites do both.  (See Levant) 1700 MCAW 25
c.1700  SUMERIAN Λ FLOOD V EPIC   A Sumerian text from Nippur names ZIUSUDRA as the flood survivor. 1700
RAI2 100
c.1700 ARMOR:  Bronze body armor used in Near East. 1700 PW 14
c.1700 ILUMA-ILUM, 1st king of SEALANDS from 1740, ends.  ITTI-ILI-NIBI succeeds to 1683. 1700 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1700 YBC 7289 Babylonian  clay tablet YBC 7289  gives an approximation of √2 in four sexagesimal figures, 1  24  51  10, which is accurate to about 6 decimal digits, and is the closest possible three-place sexagesimal representation of √2. photo Bill Casselman

18-1600 wikSR2
c.1700 WINDMILLS used by Babylonians for irrigation. 1700 TTPC
c.1691 Son of Adari, BELU-BANI ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Babylon) from 1700, ends.  Son LIBAIA succeeds to 1674. 1691 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1690 AGUM-I, 2nd king of Kassites at Mari from 1705, ends.  Son KASHTILIASH-I succeeds to 1680. 1710 RAI2 1690 hifi
c.1684 ABI-ESHUH ends.  8th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1711.  Son AMMI-DITANNA succeeds 1683-47. 1684 Sag, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1620 wikB
c.1683 ITTI-ILI-NIBI, 2nd king of SEALANDS from 1700, ends.  DAMIQ-ILISHU succeeds to 1657. 1683 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1680 ASSYRIA, vassal to Babylon from 1707, occupied by HURRIANS until ?. 1680 frN
c.1680 KASHTILIASH-I, son of Agum, 3rd king of Kassites at Mari from 1690, ends.  USHI succeeds to 1665. 1680 RAI2, hifi 1650 MRDK
c.1674 Son of Belu-bani, LIBAIA ends.  King of Ashur from 1691.  Son SHARMA-ADAD-I succeeds to 1662. 1674 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1673 hifi
c.1665 USHI, king of Kassites at Mari from 1680, ends.  ABIRATASH succeeds to 1650. 1665 hifi     Ushi & Abirtash are same man: RAI2
c.1662 Son of Libaia, SHARMA-ADAD-I ends.  King of Ashur from 1674.  Son IPTAR-SIN succeeds to 1650. 1662 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1661 hifi
c.1660 URUK, ISIN, LAGASH, LARSA, under Sealands from ? lost to Babylon. reign of Damiqilishu: hifi
c.1657 DAMIQ-ILISHU, 3rd king of SEALANDS from 1683, ends.  ISHKIBAL succeeds to 1642. 1657 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1650 Son of Sharm-Adad-1, IPTAR-SIN ends.  King of Ashur from 1662.  Son BAZAIRA succeeds to 1622. 1650 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1649 hifi
c.1650 ABIRATASH, king of Kassites at Mari from 1665, ends.  KASTILIASH-II succeeds to 1640. 1660 Tashi-Gurmash succeeds: RAI2     1650 hifi
c.1650  ATRAHASIS MYTH  - a version of the Λ FLOOD V story:  Heaven is ruled by Anu, earth by Enlil, subterranean water by Enki.  Minor gods (field workers) rebel.  Humans are made from clay, saliva and god blood to work the fields.  Human noise disturbs Enlil's sleep.  He decides to destroy them with flood.  Enki gives Akkadian Atrahasis 7 days warning, so he builds a boat. 1700 gvsu, ratra
1700-1640 ahe
1700-1600 brtms
c.1650  ERIDU GENESIS  written in Sumerian cuneiform:  Contains fragments of the Flood story.  The gods have decided not to save mankind from an impending flood.  King/priest Zi-ud-sura learns of this.  Enki is mentioned.  [gap]  A storm rocks the boat 7 days and nights.  Utu the Sun god appears.  Zi-ud-sura creates an opening in the boat, prostrates himself, and sacrifices oxen and sheep.  [gap]  Animals disembark.  Zi-ud-sura prostrates himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief god), who give him eternal life and take him to dwell in Dilmun. 2150 wikSCM
1700-1600 wikZsd
c.1647 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1725, 1st recorded invasion of Anatolia, capture everything up to Hattusa.  HATTUSILI-I counterattacks, and drives them back out of Anatolia. yr 3 hinf
1635 WPOT 223
c.1647 AMMI-DITANA ends.  9th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1683.  Son AMMI-SADUQA succeeds 1646-26. 1702 bk     1647 Sag 74, WPOT 115, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB     1583 wikB
c.1642 ISHKIBAL, 4th king of SEALANDS from 1657, ends.  SHUSHUSHI succeeds to 1618. 1642 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1640 KASTILIASH-II, king of Kassites at Mari from 1650, ends.  URZIGURUMASH succeeds to 1630. 1640 hifi
1640 Harba-Shipak succeeds Tashi-Gurmash: RAI2
c.1630 URZIGURUMASH, king of Kassites at Mari from 1640, ends.  HARBASHIHU succeeds to 1600. 1630 hifi     1600 MRDK
c.1626 AMMI-SADUQA ends.  10th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1646.  SAMSU-DITANNA succeeds to 1595. 1682 bk     1626 B76 11-979, Sag1 74, WPOT 115, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1625 ISBE 1-630, 1562 wikB
c.1622 Son of Iptar-Sin, BAZAIRA ends.  King of Ashur from 1650.  "Son of a nobody" LULLAIA succeeds to 1618. 1622 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1621 hifi
c.1618 "son of a nobody", LULLAIA ends.  King of Ashur from 1622. 1618 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1615 hifi
c.1618 SHUSHUSHI, 5th king of SEALANDS from 1642, ends.  GULKISHAR succeeds to 1592. 1618 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1615 Son of Bazaira, KIDIN-NINUA, becomes king of Ashur to 1602. 1615 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1602 Son of Bazaira, KIDIN-NINUA, ends.  King of Ashur from 1615.  Son SHARMA-ADAD-II succeeds to 1601. 1602 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA
1601 hifi
c.1601 Son of Kidin-Ninua, SHARMA-ADAD-II ends.  King of Ashur from 1602.  Son IRISHUM-III succeeds to 1586. 1601 RAI3, frN, kidA
1599 CAH 2.1
1598 RAI3, hifi, kidA
c.1600 Oldest recorded leather SHOE V (other than Λ sandals) is a wraparound strapped to the foot with rawhide laces. 1600
EOET 295
c.1600 HURRIANS have several kingdoms in northwest Mesopotamia. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 HARAN, under various Akkadian peoples from 1760, comes under Arameans until 900. 1600 rcT
c.1600 MARI, under Kassites 1730-1595, sacked by MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590. no date: Sag 74
c.1600 HARBASHIHU, king of Kassites at Mari from 1630, ends.  TIPTAKZI succeeds to 1595. 1620 RAI2 1600 hifi
c.1600  Babylonian tablet YBC 7289  Inscribed with sexagesimal (base-60) numbers that describe the relationship between the length of the diagonal and the length of the sides of a square.
Λ MATH V:  Approximates √2 to 5 - 8 decimal places.  (Sources disagree.)   (See  Rhind Pap. 1650China 950zero 876)
1800-1600 mubc, wikBM, wikYbc
1600 aukl
c.1600 Babylonian  HYMN to ISHTAR  written. 1600 bk, g2b
c.1595 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites, plunders and burns BABYLON.   Goes home. 1650 bk     1595 PW 15, Sag1 74, frM, frN, hifi     1590 B76 V-67     1531 vrb
c.1595 SAMSU-DITANNA dies.  11th king of 1st dynasty of Babylon from 1626, killed by Mursilis-I. 1595 B76 11-978, CWH, ISBE 1-630, Sag1 74, brKB, frM, hifi, stmaB
1550 FLAP 45
1531 wikB
OLD BABYLONIAN period ends.  Began 2000.
1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon ends.  Began 1894.
c.1595 MARI, under Kassites from 1730, comes under Hittites until 1590. 1595 rcS
c.1595 TIPTAKZI, king of Kassites at Mari from 1600, ends.  AGUM-II succeeds to 1585. 1626 bk     1602 RAI2
1595 hifi     1580 MRDK

Syria & Urartu 1000-612         Mesopotamia 1000-612
V             V